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Table 1 Clinical data of study subjects

From: New physical examination tests for lumbar spondylolisthesis and instability: low midline sill sign and interspinous gap change during lumbar flexion-extension motion

  Low midline sill sign group (Group A, n = 96) Interspinous gap change group (Group B, n = 73)
Age (years, mean ± SD) 52.8 ± 13.9 56.2 ± 12.4
Gender (M/F) 31 / 65 19 / 54
Pain level (mean ± SD) 5.3 ± 1.3 7.1 ± 2.0
Radiographic findings other than spondylolisthesis and instability (%)
Scoliosis 55 (57.3) 14 (19.2)
Disc space narrowing 40 (41.7) 57 (78.1)
Osteophyte 54 (56.3) 38 (52.1)
Lumbarisation 6 (6.3) 2 (2.7)
  1. Pain level was evaluated on a 10-point numeric rating scale, where 0 was no pain and 10 was the maximum severity of pain.