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Table 4 Treatment outcomes

From: Short-term effect on pain and function of neurophysiological education and sensorimotor retraining compared to usual physiotherapy in patients with chronic or recurrent non-specific low back pain, a pilot randomized controlled trial

  Within-group mean difference [95% CI] * Between-group mean difference [95% CI], (p-value 2-tailed)
MMT n = 14 UPT n = 13
Primary outcome    
Pain NRS 2.14 [1.0 to 3.5] 0.69 [-2.0 to 2.5.] 1.45 [0.0 to 4.0] (p = 0.03)
Secondary outcomes    
Disability PSFS 2.55 [1.3 to 3.8] 1.13 [-0.1 to 2.4] 1.42 [-0.25 to 3.09] (p = 0.09)
Disability RMDQ 6.71 [4.2 to 9.3] 4.69 [1.9 to 7.4] 2.02 [-1.5 to 5.6] (p = 0.25)
Fear avoidance beliefs FABQ 4.79 [0.6 to 8.9] 3.85 [-2.8 to 10.5] 0.94 [-6.3 to 8.2] (p = 0.79)
Pain catastrophizing PCS 3.43 [0.1 to 6.7] 6.15 [0.2 to 12.1] -2.73 [-9.3 to 3.8] (p = 0.40)
Sensory acuity TPD 11.79 [6.8 to 16.8] -2.69 [-14.3 to 8.9] 14.48 [2.2 to 26.8] (p = 0.02)
Movement control, positive out of 6 tests -0.29 [-2 to 1] -0.69 [-1.5 to 0.0] 0.50 [-1.0 to 2.0] (p = 0.29)
Pain medication during prior 7 days 13 11  
- none   2
- NSAID 1 0
- opioids   1 missing data
  1. MMT multimodal treatment (group); UPT usual physiotherapy treatment (group); *[95% CI] 95 percent confidence interval for normal distributed data; p-value; NRS numeric rating scale; PSFS patient-specific functional scale; RMDQ Roland and Morris Disability Questionnaire; FABQ Fear Avoidance Beliefs Questionnaire; PCS Pain Catastrophizing Scale; TPD two-point-discrimination; NSAID non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug.