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Table 1 Study population, baseline characteristics

From: Short-term effect on pain and function of neurophysiological education and sensorimotor retraining compared to usual physiotherapy in patients with chronic or recurrent non-specific low back pain, a pilot randomized controlled trial

  MMT (n = 14) UPT (n = 14)
Age, mean (SD) 41.57 (9.77) 41.71 (12.21)
Gender: female (%) 9 (64.3%) 6 (42.9%)
Pain NRS, mean (SD) 4.86 (1.61) 4.64 (1.82)
Disability PSFS, mean (SD) 5.43 (1.58) 5.48 (1.25)
Disability RMDQ, mean (SD) 10.21 (4.44) 11.21 (3.95)
Fear avoidance beliefs FABQ, mean (SD) 23.93 (11.58) 25.92 (12.28)
Pain catastrophizing PCS, mean (SD) 14.43 (7.62) 20.08 (8.24)
Sensory acuity TPD, mean (SD) 70.71 (14.39) 70.71 (14.12)
Movement control, mean (SD) number of positive tests out of 6 2.64 (1.55) 2.50 (1.09)
Days of work lost during prior 7 days pre-therapy None None
Pain medication during prior 7 days   
- none 7 8
- NSAID 5 5
- opioids 2 1
  1. MMT: multimodal treatment (group); UPT: usual physiotherapy treatment (group); SD standard deviation; NRS numeric rating scale; PSFS patient-specific functional scale; RMDQ Roland and Morris Disability Questionnaire; FABQ Fear Avoidance Beliefs Questionnaire; PCS Pain Catastrophizing Scale; TPD two-point-discrimination; NSAID non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug.