Variables

Males

Females


N Mean (SD); percentage

N Mean (SD); percentage


Participants included in the analysis

Participants excluded from the analysis^{a}

pvalue

Participants included in the analysis

Participants excluded from the analysis^{a}

pvalue


Followup at 11 years
      
Family income

N = 1601

N = 590
 
N = 1706

N = 555
 

1219.77 (2966.82)

1054.02 (2403.48)

0.224^{b}

1062.79 (1597.87)

849.28 (1565.43)

0.006^{b}

Maternal education (years)

N = 1601

N = 572
 
N = 1706

N = 535
 
04

24.9%

29.6%

0.099^{c}

22.6%

35.9%

<0.001^{c}

58

42.5%

42.1%
 
43.5%

44.1%
 
911

22.4%

20.1%
 
23.5%

13.6%
 
≥12

10.2%

8.2%
 
10.4%

6.4%
 
Skin color

N = 1601

N = 509
 
N = 1706

N = 507
 
White

65.5%

60.5%

0.040^{c}

65.2%

59.2%

0.013^{c}

Nonwhite

34.5%

39.5%
 
34.8%

40.8%
 
Total physical activity (minutes/week)

N = 1601

N = 515
 
N = 1706

N = 465
 

514.80 (523.77)

559.49 (563.32)

0.098^{b}

347.41 (405.32)

325.42 (367.51)

0.29^{b}

Smoking

N = 1601

N = 484
 
N = 1706

N = 487
 
No

97.6%

96.3%

0.129^{c}

98.1%

96.7%

0.061^{c}

Yes

2.4%

3.7%
 
1.9%

3.3%
 
BMI z score^{d}

N = 1601

N = 583
 
N = 1706

N = 551
 

0.46 (1.22)

0.52 (1.35)

0.349^{b}

0.27 (1.23)

0.31 (1.20)

0.531^{b}

Followup at 18 years
      
Total physical activity (minutes/week)

N = 1601

N = 407
 
N = 1706

N = 381
 

855.53 (914.26)

910.45 (913.21)

0.279^{b}

455.94 (583.28)

460.20 (521.76)

0.895^{b}

Smoking

N = 1601

N = 414
 
N = 1706

N = 385
 
No

86.2%

79.5%

0.001^{c}

88.5%

81.0%

<0.001^{c}

Yes

13.8%

20.5%
 
11.5%

19.0%
 
BMI z score^{d}

N = 1601

N = 372
 
N = 1706

N = 295
 

0.25 (1.15)

0.45 (1.39)

0.005^{b}

0.44 (1.18)

0.47 (1.30)

0.753^{b}

Fat mass (kg)

N = 1601

N = 369
 
N = 1706

N = 297
 

12.46 (8.72)

14.40 (12.60)

<0.001^{b}

20.75 (8.90)

21.19 (11.60)

0.453^{b}

Fat free mass (kg)

N = 1601

N = 369
 
N = 1706

N = 297
 

57.74 (7.04)

58.67 (8.25)

0.026^{b}

40.15 (4.99)

40.67 (5.41)

0.101^{b}

Height (m)

N = 1601

N = 369
 
N = 1706

N = 298
 

1.74 (0.07)

1.74 (0.08)

0.857^{b}

1.61 (0.06)

1.61 (0.06)

0.874^{b}

Calcium intake (mg/day)

N = 1601

N = 336
 
N = 1706

N = 316
 

709.16 (332.71)

726.61 (340.34)

0.384^{b}

694.27 (351.62)

679.39 (364.83)

0.492^{b}

Bone mineral content (g)

N = 1601

N = 302
 
N = 1706

N = 246
 

2963.12 (465.24)

2927.32 (441.61)

0.216^{b}

2410.69 (396.08)

2411.90 (386.86)

0.964^{b}

Bone mineral density (g/cm^{2})

N = 1601

N = 302
 
N = 1706

N = 246
 

1.22 (0.10)

1.22 (0.09)

0.544^{b}

1.13 (0.08)

1.13 (0.08)

0.902^{b}

 The 1993 Pelotas Birth Cohort. Brazil.
 N  Number of observations; SD  Standard deviation; BMI  body mass index
 ^{a}Participants excluded from analysis due to losses of followup or missing data.
 ^{b}ttest
 ^{c}Chisquare test
 ^{d}According to the World Health Organization for children and teenagers from 5 to 19 years.