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Table 5 Summary of main results

From: Evidence for a general stiffening motor control pattern in neck pain: a cross sectional study

  Indicate less motion Normal Indicate larger motion Effect size Mean (95 % CI)
Neck flexibility     
Flexion/extension 1 X    0.84 (0.52 to 1.16)*
CM3 X    0.37 (0.06 to 0.68)*
Peak velocity2 X    1.05 (0.72 to 1.37)*
Rotation 1 X    0.72 (0.41 to 1.04)*
CM3 X    0.36 (0.05 to 0.67)*
Peak velocity2 X    0.90 (0.57 to 1.22)*
Lateral flexion 1   X   0.30 (-0.01 to 0.61)
CM3   X   0.19 (-0.11 to 0.50)
Peak velocity2 X    1.08 (0.75 to 1.41)*
Total cervical ROM 1 X    0.76 (0.44 to 1.08)*
Proprioception     
JPE2   X   -0.26 (-0.56 to 0.05)
Head steadiness     
Low load1 X    1.29 (0.95 to 1.63)*
High Load1 X    1.95 (1.58 to 2.32)*
Trajectory movement control     
FOE low speed1   X   0.22 (-0.09 to 0.53)
FOE high sped1 X    0.45 (0.13 to 0.76)*
FOE standing1 X    0.40 (0.09 to 0.71)*
Fly test 1A1 X    0.36 (0.05 to 0.68)*
Fly test 1B1   X   0.07 (-0.23 to 0.38
Fly test 2A1   X   0.16 (-0.15 to 0.47)
Fly test 2B1   X   -0.07 (-0.39 to 0.24)
Postural sway     
Open eyes1   X   -0.09 (-0.40 to 0.21)
Closed eyes1   X   -0.26 (-0.57 to 0.06)
Balance pad1    X -0.64 (-0.95 to -0.32)*
FOE standing1   X   0.30 (-0.07 to 0.66)
  1. Effect sizes for each variable with 95% CI are listed below.
  2. Interpretation of the effect size: 0.2 = small, 0.5 = medium, >0.8 = large.
  3. Negative or positive effect sizes indicate that the NP group has larger or smaller values, respectively, compared to HC. Statistically significant and effect sizes >0.5 are marked with * and bold numbers, respectively.
  4. 1 Adjusted for age and gender (model 1).
  5. 2 Adjusted for age, gender, and cervical ROM (model 2).
  6. 3 Adjusted for age, gender, cervical ROM, and peak velocity (model 3).
  7. * = p value <0.05.
  8. ROM = range of motion. CM = conjunct motion in the two accessory movement planes. JPE = joint position error. INF = isometric neck flexion. FOE = figure of eight. 1A = easy pattern, small ROM. 1B = easy pattern, large ROM. 2A = difficult pattern, small ROM. 2B = difficult pattern, large ROM. EO = eyes open. EC = eyes closed. EOB = eyes open balance pad.