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Table 4 Group comparisons of head steadiness, trajectory movement control, and postural sway

From: Evidence for a general stiffening motor control pattern in neck pain: a cross sectional study

  Neck pain Healthy controls n=NP/HC p1
Head steadiness     
INF Low load     
Angular velocity (°/s) 1.3 (1.2-1.4) 1.7 (1.6-1.8) 75/90 <0.01
INF High Load     
Angular velocity (°/s) 2.8 (2.6-2.9) 4.5 (4.3-4.7) 73/91 <0.01
Trajectory movement control     
FOE Low speed     
Point deviation (cm) 3.4 (3.1-3.7) 3.8 (3.4-4.1) 75/89 0.17
FOE High speed     
Point deviation (cm) 4.4 (4.1-4.8) 5.2 (4.8-5.6) 75/91 <0.01
FOE Standing, low speed     
Point deviation (cm) 2.9 (2.6-3.1) 3.3 (3.0-3.6) 74/91 0.02
The Fly test     
PD test 1A (cm) 2.2 (2.0-2.4) 2.5 (2.3-2.7) 75/89 0.03
PD test 1B (cm) 2.1 (2.0-2.2) 2.1 (2.0-2.3) 75/89 0.63
PD test 2A (cm) 3.1 (2.9-3.3) 3.3 (3.1-3.5) 74/88 0.33
PD test 2B (cm) 2.8 (2.7-3.0) 2.8 (2.6-2.9) 75/83 0.64
Postural sway     
Sway area EO (cm2) 3.0 (2.4-3.5) 2.7 (2.2-3.3) 72/90 0.53
Sway area EC (cm2) 2.5 (2.0-3.1) 2.0 (1.7-2.3) 72/87 0.12
Sway area EOB (cm2) 11.0 (9.7-12.3) 8.1 (7.4-8.7) 73/91 <0.01
Sway area FOE (cm2) 4.3 (3.3-5.2) 5.9 (4.2-7.5) 73/48 0.09
  1. Given values are mean (95 % CI) adjusted for age and gender (model 1).
  2. 1 p value adjusted for age and gender (model 1).
  3. INF = isometric neck flexion. FOE = figure of eight. PA = point deviation. 1A = easy pattern, small ROM.
  4. 1B = easy pattern, large ROM. 2A = difficult pattern, small ROM. 2B = difficult pattern, large ROM.
  5. EO = eyes open. EC = eyes closed. EOB = eyes open balance pad.