Shows the Hilgenreiner epiphyseal angle(HEA),center-edge angle(CEA),acetabular index(AI),and neck-shaft angle(NSA). The HEA was the angle between Hilgenreiner's line and another line drawn through the proximal femoral physis. The CEA was the angle between a line joining the center of the femoral head to the lateral edge of the acetabulum and a line perpendicular to the inter-teardrop line passing through the center of the femoral head. The AI was formed by a horizontal line connecting both triradiate cartilages (Hilgenreiner's line) and a second line that extended along the acetabular roof. The angle was measured between the second line and a line drawn between the medial and lateral sourcils. The NSA was the angle between a line passing through the midway of the femoral shaft and another line joining the femoral head center and midpoint of the femoral neck.