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Table 2 Six-month differences for recovery groups

From: Psychological predictors of recovery from low back pain: a prospective study

Psychological Measure Recovered (n = 14) Not Recovered (n = 97) p-value
FABQ-PA 5.1 ± 5.7 (3.0) 12.5 ± 6.7 (13.0) <.001*
FABQ-W 4.2 ± 5.6 (2.0) 12.5 ± 13.1 (9.0) .022
PCS 6.1 ± 10.1 (0.5) 11.6 ± 11.5 (8.0) .097
TSK-11 13.8 ± 4.8 (11.0) 24.0 ± 7.1 (23.0) <.001*
PHQ-9 0.1 ± 0.3 (0.0) 4.8 ± 4.8 (3.0) <.001*
  1. All values are reported as mean ± standard deviation and (median) estimates. (†) indicates significance level for recovery status comparisons using independent samples t-tests; an alpha level of 0.01 was used for all analyses. (*) indicates p < 0.01.
  2. Abbreviations:FABQ-PA Fear-Avoidance Beliefs Questionnaire (physical activity scale), FABQ-W Fear-Avoidance Beliefs Questionnaire (work scale), PCS Pain Catastrophizing Scale, TSK-11 Tampa Scale for Kinesiophobia (11-item version), PHQ-9 Patient Health Questionnaire (9-item version).