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Table 1 Intake differences for recovery groups

From: Psychological predictors of recovery from low back pain: a prospective study

Variable Total sample (n = 111) Recovered (n = 14) Not Recovered (n = 97) p-value
Age (years) 43.5 ± 12.4 (45.0) 40.2 ± 14.1 (45.0) 43.8 ± 12.1 (46.0) .290
Sex (n, female) 72 (64.9%) 7/72 (9.7%) 65/72 (90.3%) .213
Prior LBP episodes (n, yes) 70 (63.1%) 7/70 (10.0%) 63/70 (90.0%) .279
Symptom duration (n, chronic) 53 (47.7%) 6/53 (11.3%) 47/53 (88.7%) .618
NPRS 5.4 ± 1.9 (5.3) 4.1 ± 2.2 (4.3) 5.6 ± 1.8 (5.7) .008*
RMDQ 11.1 ± 6.0 (10.0) 7.7 ± 5.4 (7.0) 11.6 ± 6.0 (11.0) .022
SBT status     
Low risk 38 (34.2%) 10/38 (26.3%) 28/38 (73.7%) .004*
Medium risk 45 (40.5%) 4/45 (8.9%) 41/45 (91.1%)
High risk 28 (25.2%) 0/28 (0.0%) 28/28 (100.0%)
FABQ-PA 14.4 ± 6.1 (14.0) 12.7 ± 7.5 (13.0) 14.7 ± 5.9 (15.0) .267
FABQ-W 12.6 ± 10.9 (11.0) 6.6 ± 7.1 (5.0) 13.7 ± 11.1 (11.0) .025
PCS 16.4 ± 12.0 (14.0) 13.8 ± 13.1 (11.0) 16.9 ± 11.9 (15.0) .385
TSK-11 25.2 ± 6.9 (25.0) 23.2 ± 8.0 (21.0) 25.7 ± 6.7 (25.0) .251
PHQ-9 7.5 ± 6.0 (6.0) 2.3 ± 2.8 (2.0) 8.2 ± 6.1 (7.0) <.001*
  1. All values for continuous measures are reported as mean ± standard deviation and (median) estimates. All values for categorical measures are reported as frequency count (percentage) estimates in relation to respective category of total study sample. (†) indicates significance level for recovery status comparisons using independent samples t-tests (for continuous measures) and chi-square tests (for categorical measures); an alpha level of 0.01 was used for all analyses. (*) indicates p < 0.01.
  2. Abbreviations:LBP low back pain, NPRS Numerical Pain Rating Scale, RMDQ Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire, SBT STarT Back Tool, FABQ-PA Fear-Avoidance Beliefs Questionnaire (physical activity scale), FABQ-W Fear-Avoidance Beliefs Questionnaire (work scale), PCS Pain Catastrophizing Scale, TSK-11 Tampa Scale for Kinesiophobia (11-item version), PHQ-9 Patient Health Questionnaire (9-item version).