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Table 5 Evaluation criteria of stump problems

From: Surgical revision for stump problems after traumatic above-ankle amputations of the lower extremity

Category Content
Anatomy Skin: scar, folds, folliculitis, ulcer, fistulas etc.
Muscle: loose, without myodesis and myoplasty
Nerve: neuroma, adhesion of nerve
Bone end:spur, abduction or mecism of fibula
Pain nature Stump pain (4 types [4]): nerve stimulation, circulatory disturbance, muscle anomalous tension, bone spur
phantom limb pain:complicated reasons, not fully clear
Shape of stump Conical
Cylindrical
Irregular
Soft tissue coverage Extensive skin grafting,including stamp skin grafting
Bone protrusion subcutaneously with muscle retraction
Excess soft tissue
Heavy scar
Primary amputation Emergent operation for amputation
Failure of limb salvage
Normal healing after amputation
Necrosis, infection, delayed healing
Infection Yes, companied with ulcer, fistulas, osteomyelitis etc.
No