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Table 2 Characteristics of study population at baseline and after 12 months follow-up according to vitamin D status at the time of RA diagnosis

From: Hypovitaminosis D in recent onset rheumatoid arthritis is predictive of reduced response to treatment and increased disease activity: a 12 month follow-up study

Parameters Baseline 12 months follow up
25(OH)D <20 ng/ml (N = 13) 25(OH)D >20 ng/ml (N = 24) P-value 25(OH)D <20 ng/ml (N = 13) 25(OH)D >20 ng/ml (N = 24) P-value
Age, mean ± SD 51.3 ± 13.1 46.0 ± 11.2 ns^ - - -
Sex, M/F 2/11 3/22 ns* - - -
BMI (Kg/m2), mean ± SD 25.5 ± 5.2 25.5 ± 4.2 ns^ - - -
Vitamin D (ng/ml), mean ± SD 12.4 ± 3.4 30.4 ± 9.9 0.0001^ - - -
Disease Duration (weeks), mean ± SD 21.6 ± 12.8 23.8 ± 18.1 ns^ - - -
Morning stiffness (minutes), mean ± SD 56.6 ± 49.4 83.6 ± 102.2 ns^ 38.3 ± 27.2 12.1 ± 15.8 0.002^
ESR (mm/h), mean ± SD 25.9 ± 13.1 35.5 ± 25.4 ns^ 15 ± 10 13.4 ± 12.9 ns^
CRP (g/L), mean ± SD 8.2 ± 8.2 16.4 ± 19.3 ns^ 5.1 ± 4.2 4.1 ± 4.7 ns^
RF positivity, number (%) 11 (85%) 20 (83%) ns * 9 (69%) 13 (54%) 0.002*
APCA positivity, number (%) 11 (85%) 19 (79%) ns* 10 (77%) 18 (75%) ns*
Ritchie Index, mean ± SD 10.5 ± 8.45 9.71 ± 8.32 ns^ 4.25 ± 3.52 1.62 ± 2.28 0.004^
VAS pain (mm), mean ± SD 64.2 ± 19.9 60.8 ± 27 ns^ 61.4 ± 31.2 20.1 ± 25.1 0.001^
VAS disease patient (mm), mean ± SD 58 ± 23.6 57.8 ± 24.4 ns^ 48.7 ± 27.3 21.6 ± 22.3 0.004^
EGA (mm), mean ± SD 52.7 ± 26.2 54.8 ± 18.3 ns^ 36 ± 20.5 17.6 ± 18.5 0.01^
Global Health, mean ± SD 48.6 ± 22.3 63.9 ± 17.3 ns^ 35 ± 16.2 17.3 ± 11.8 0.03^
Number of tender joints (0–44), median (range) 11.5 (2–35) 11.5 (0–33) ns^ 6 (1–19) 1 (0–13) 0.002^
Number of swollen joints (0–44), median (range) 5 (1–22) 5.5 (0–13) ns^ 1.5 (0–9) 0 (0–8) 0.02^
Number of tender joints (0–28), median (range) 7 (2–24) 7.5 (0–23) ns^ 3.5 (1–11) 0 (0–4) 0.001^
Number of swollen joints (0–28), median (range) 3.5 (1–20) 5 (0–13) ns^ 1.5 (0–8) 0 (0–8) 0.01^
DAS 28 score, mean ± SD 5.1 ± 0.7 5.2 ± 1.2 ns^ 3.6 ± 1.03 2.3 ± 0.9 0.001^
Remission (DAS28 < 2.6), number (%) - - - 2 (16) 16 (68) 0.001
Low disease activity (DAS28 2.6-3.2), number (%) 0 (0) 1 (4.2)   2 (15) 4 (16)  
Moderate disease activity (DAS 28 3.2-5.1), number (%) 10 (77) 11 (45.8)   8 (62) 3 (12)  
High disease activity (DAS28 > 5.6), number (%) 4 (23) 12 (50)   1 (8) 1 (4)  
Good responders, number (%) - - - 0 (0) 1 (4)  
Moderate responders, number (%) - - - 10 (75) 23 (96)  
No responders, number (%) - - - 3 (25) 0 (0)  
Ultrasound Total Synovitis score, mean ± SD 26.5 ± 31.3 25.4 ± 17.4 ns^ 14.3 ± 15.6 8.1 ± 6.2 ns ^
Ultrasound Total power Doppler score, mean ± SD 4.6 ± 8.9 2.7 ± 4.2 ns^ 0.83 ± 1.32 0.57 ± 1.26 ns^
Ultrasound Total Erosion score, mean ± SD 1.2 ± 2.3 1.4 ± 3 ns^ 11.8 ± 6.4 9.6 ± 11.2 ns^
  1. Results are shown as mean ± SD or number (percentage) of patients, as appropriated. ^Mann–Whitney test applied, *chi-squared test applied. P-value <0.05 are considered significant. ESR, erythrocyte sedimentation rate; CRP, C-reactive protein; RF, Rheumatoid Factor; ACPA, anti-citrullinated protein antibodies; VAS, visual analogue scale; EGA, examinator’s global disease activity assessment; DAS28, 28-joint disease activity score.