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Table 1 Basic characteristics of included studies

From: Efficacy of anti–tumor necrosis factor therapy for extra-articular manifestations in patients with ankylosing spondylitis: a meta–analysis

Study No. of patients Age (years) Male patients N (%) Duration of AS (years) Study Duration (weeks) Medications allowed during the study Modified Jadad Score Risk of bias
Sequence generation Allocation concealment blinding Incomplete outcome data Selective outcome reporting other sources of bias
ADA              
van der Heijde D. 2006 [31] 315     24 DMARDs, NSAIDs and glucocorticoids 6 ? ?
ADA 40 mg every 2 weeks 208 41.7 ± 11.69 157 (75.5) 11.3 ± 9.99          
Placebo 107 43.4 ± 11.32 79 (73.8) 10.0 ± 8.34          
ETA              
Brandt J. 2003 [32] 30     24 NSAIDs 8
ETA 25 mg twice weekly 14 38.9 ± 9.1 10 (71.4) 14.9 ± 8.3          
Placebo 16 32.0 ± 7.5 12 (75) 11.4 ± 8.8          
Davis JC Jr. 2003 [33] 277     24 DMARDs, NSAIDs and glucocorticoids 6 ? ?
ETA 25 mg twice weekly 138 42.1 (24–70) 105 (76) 10.1 (0–30.7)          
Placebo 139 41.9 (18–65) 105 (76) 10.5 (0–35.3)          
van der Heijde D. 2006 [34] 356     12 DMARDs, NSAIDs and glucocorticoids 6 ? ?
ETA 25 mg twice weekly 150 39.8 ± 10.7 114 (76) 10.0 ± 9.1          
ETA 50 mg weekly 155 41.5 ± 11.0 109 (70) 9.0 ± 8.7          
Placebo 51 40.1 ± 10.9 40 (78) 8.5 ± 6.8          
IFX              
Braun J. 2002 [35] 69     12 NSAIDs 8
IFX 5 mg/Kg 34 40.6 ± 8.0 23 (68) 16.4 ± 8.3          
Placebo 35 39.0 ± 9.1 22 (63) 14.9 ± 9.3          
Marzo-Ortega H. 2005 [36] 42     30 NSAIDs, oral corticosteroids 8
IFX 5 mg/Kg + MTX 28 41 (28–74) 23 (82.14) 8 (0–41)          
Placebo + MTX 14 39 (30–56) 11 (78.57) 10 (0–35)          
GOL              
Inman RD. 2008 [37] 356     24 NSAIDs, MTX, SSA, HCQ, corticosteroids 7 ? ?
GOL 50 mg 138 38 (29–46) 102 (73.8) 5.15 (1.60–11.60)          
GOL 100 mg 140 38 (30–47) 98 (70.0) 5.20 (1.50–13.25)          
Placebo 78 41 (31–50) 55 (70.5) 7.25 (2.80–18.60)          
CZP              
Landewé R. 2014 [38] 325     24 DMARDs, NSAIDs, MTX, SSA 6 ? ?
CZP 200 mg every 2 weeks 111 39.1 ± 11.9 67 (60.4) 6.9 (0.3–34.2)          
CZP 400 mg every 4 weeks 107 39.8 ± 11.3 68 (63.6) 7.9 (0.3–44.8)          
Placebo 107 39.9 ± 12.4 65 (60.7) 7.7 (0.3–50.9)          
  1. ADA = adalimumab; ETA = etanercept; IFX = infliximab; GOL = golimumab; CZP: certolizumab; MTX = methotrexate; DMARDs = disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs; NSAIDs = non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs; SSA = sulfasalazine; HCQ = hydroxychloroquine; √, low risk of bias; ?, unclear risk of bias.