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Table 1 Main characteristics of RCTs included in the meta-analysis

From: Single administration of intra-articular bupivacaine in arthroscopic knee surgery: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Study (Year) Country Sample Size No. of Pts (BG/PG) Gender (M/F) Age (yr) Doses (mg) Concentration (%) Type of anaesthesia Epinephrine Surgery time (min) Injection time Tourniquet Study design OCEBM (R/C/B/F)
BG PG
Aasbo (1996) Norway 54 27/27 34/20 39 50 0.25 GA No 32 ± 20 28 ± 12 8 min before RT Yes Double-blind 5 (1/1/2/1)
RCT
Alagol (2005) Turkey 50 25/25 33/17 51.7 100 0.5 GA No 83.8 ± 13.9 79.9 ± 10.6 15 min before RT Yes Double-blind 5(1/1/2/1)
RCT
Ates (1994) Turkey 20 10/10 17/3 24.8 50 0.5 SA No NA 5 min before RT Yes Double-blind 5(1/1/2/1)
RCT
Bjornsson (1994) Sweden 38 19/19 27/11 32 50 0.25 GA No 27.3 ± 12 24.7 ± 10 5-10 min before RT Yes Double-blind 5(1/1/2/1)
RCT
Calmet (2004) Spain 40 20/20 NA NA 25 0.25 GA No NA Before RT Yes Double-blind 5(1/1/2/1)
RCT
Campo (2012) Netherlands 190 94/96 85/105 50.1 50 0.5 GA No 17 (8–40) 16 (4–36) Before RT Yes Double-blind 7(2/2/2/1)
RCT
Cepeda (1997) U.K. 56 27/29 37/19 37.6 100 0.5 GA Yes 51.5 ± 19.4 53.0 ± 19.8 5 min before RT Yes Double-blind 5(1/1/2/1)
RCT
Cook (1997) Turkey 42 21/21 36/6 34.5 100 0.25 GA No NA 10 min before RT Yes Double-blind 7(2/2/2/1)
RCT
Datta (2004) India 32 16/16 27/3 30 100 0.5 SA No 72 ± 18 66 ± 6 Before RT Yes Double-blind 5(1/1/2/1)
RCT
De Andres (1998) Spain 50 25/25 31/19 36.9 50 0.25 GA No 50.2 ± 8.2 48.6 ± 12.4 10 min before RT Yes Double-blind 5(1/1/2/1)
RCT
Eroglu (2010) Turkey 39 19/20 24/15 38.0 50 0.5 SA No 59 ± 12 52 ± 16 10 min before RT Yes RCT 5(2/2/0/1)
Geutjens (1994) U.K. 44 23/21 NA NA 50 0.5 GA No NA 5 min before RT Yes Double-blind 4(1/0/2/1)
RCT
Haynes (1994) U.K. 20 10/10 NA NA 100 0.25 GA Yes NA Before RT Yes Double-blind 5(1/1/2/1)
RCT
Henderson (1990) USA 100 51/49 56/44 29.5 75 0.25 GA No 45 ± 19 52 ± 24 End of surgery Yes Double-blind 5(1/1/2/1)
RCT
Izdes (2003) Turkey 60 30/30 35/25 39.7 62.5 0.25 GA No 33 ± 9 33 ± 9 10 min before RT Yes Double-blind 5(1/1/2/1)
21 ± 3 21 ± 4 RCT
Marchal (2003) Spain 33 17/16 30/3 33.0 62.5 0.25 GA Yes 72.2 ± 52.9 67.5 ± 53.3 10 min before RT Yes Double-blind 5(1/1/2/1)
59.6 ± 26.8 61 ± 28.1 RCT
Marret (2005) France 30 15/15 17/13 48.5 150 0.5 GA No 32 ± 6 34 ± 6 5 min before RT Yes Double-blind 7(2/2/2/1)
RCT
Milligan (1988) U.K. 39 24/15 NA NA 50 0.25 GA No NA End of surgery NA Double-blind 5(1/1/2/1)
100 0.5 RCT
Osborne (1993) Australia 78 38/40 55/23 33.4 100 0.5 GA No 39.7 39.2 End of surgery NA Double-blind 6(1/2/2/1)
80 40/40 60/20 34.3 100 0.5 GA Yes 42.3 39.2 RCT
Raja (1992) USA 31 15/16 NA 45 50 0.25 SA Yes 90 ± 6 90 ± 6 Before RT Yes Double-blind 6(1/2/2/1)
RCT
Smith (1991) USA 97 49/48 65/32 35.5 150 0.5 GA No 53 ± 19 56 ± 16 End of surgery Yes Double-blind 7(2/2/2/1)
RCT
Toivonen (2002) Finland 120 60/60 69/51 43.1 100 0.5 GA Yes 26 ± 14 28 ± 10 End of surgery NA Double-blind 7(2/2/2/1)
RCT
Varrassi (1999) Italy 24 12/12 15/9 39 50 0.25 GA No 29 ± 8 34 ± 20 10 min before RT Yes Double-blind 6(1/2/2/1)
RCT
Elsharnouby (2008) Egypt 54 27/27 48/6 NA 50 0.25 GA No 40 ± 5 38 ± 5 10 min before RT Yes Double-blind 5(1/1/2/1)
RCT
Karamanlioglu (2005) Turkey 41 21/20 20/21 40.0 100 0.5 GA No 85.2 ± 27.3 88.5 ± 26.6 End of surgery NA Double-blind 5(1/1/2/1)
RCT
Tetzlaff (1999) USA 20 10/10 NA NA 150 0.25 GA Yes NA Before RT NA RCT 4(1/0/2/1)
Shaw (1997) U.K. 58 31/27 51/7 36.3 100 0.5 GA No 40.0 33.0 5 min before RT Yes Double-blind 6(1/2/2/1)
RCT
Chan (1995) Singapore 20 10/10 20/0 NA 50 0.25 GA No NA 5 min before RT Yes Double-blind 4(1/0/2/1)
RCT
  1. BG: Bupivacaine group; F: Female; GA: General anesthesia; M: male; mOCEBM: Modified presentation of the Oxford Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine levels of evidence; NA: Not available; PG: Placebo group; Pts: Patients; R/C/B/F: randomization/concealment of allocation/double-blinding/follow-up of patients; RCT: Randomized controlled trial; RT: Release of the tourniquet; SA: Spinal anesthesia.