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Table 3 Mean values of the outcomes of pain, function and pain catastrophizing from bivariable analyses for each area-level SES group

From: Association between socioeconomic status and pain, function and pain catastrophizing at presentation for total knee arthroplasty

Dependent variable Overall cohort SES 1 SES 2 SES 3 p-value*
  N = 316 N = 85 N = 87 N = 144  
Pain – mean (SD) 41.0 (18.2) 46.2 (20.2) 42.4 (18.4) 37.2 (15.9) <0.01
Functional status- mean (SD) 41.8 (17.1) 46.6 (17.8) 42.8 (17.5) 38.4 (15.8) <0.01
Pain catastrophizing- mean (SD) 12.0 (10.7) 13.8 (12.1) 13.3 (11.5) 10.2 (8.9) 0.01
  1. *P-values determined from Ward tests of beta coefficients in a model assuming linear trend of SES index groups: SES 1 is the lowest quartile, SES 3 is the highest two quartiles combined.