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Table 6 Clinical factors

From: Risk factors for venous thromboembolism of total hip arthroplasty and total knee arthroplasty: a systematic review of evidences in ten years

Risk factors(clinical factors) Studies reporting on a risk factor for THA or TKA:total number,number reporting a significant (p ≤ .05) increased (+)or decreased (−)risk,and number with no significant association (p >. 05)
  THA TKA
  N p ≤ .05 p > .05 N p ≤ .05 p > .05
   + -    + -  
Underlying diagnosis         
RA (vs. without RA) - - - - 1 1 0 0
RA (vs. OA)* 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0
Trauma (vs. OA) 1 0 0 1 - - - -
Osteonecrosis (vs. OA) 1 0 0 1 - - - -
Dysplasia (vs. OA) 1 0 0 1 - - - -
Comorbidity         
Higher Charlson index 2 0 0 2 2 1 0 1
Cardiovascular disease 1 1 0 0 - - - -
Stroke 1 0 0 1 1 1 0 0
Heart disease 1 0 0 1 2 0 0 2
CHF/MI 2 1 0 1 1 1 0 0
Coronary artery disease 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1
Valve disease 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1
Arrhythmia 2 0 0 2 2 0 0 2
VTE history 6 2 0 4 4 0 0 4
Venous stasis - - - - 1 0 0 1
Varicose vein 2 1 0 1 3 0 0 3
Pulmonary disease 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1
Sleep apnea 2 1 0 1 2 1 0 1
Neurological disease 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1
Liver and kidney disease 1 0 0 1 - - - -
CKD3B (vs. CKD1-3A)§ 1 1 0 0 - - - -
Metabolic syndrome 1 1 0 0 2 2 0 0
Diabetes mellitus 4 0 0 4 5 0 0 5
Hypertension 2 0 0 2 3 0 0 3
Dyslipidemia 2 0 0 2 2 0 0 2
Gout - - - - 1 0 0 1
Hematological disease 1 0 0 1 2 1 0 1
Endocrine disease 1 0 0 1 2 0 0 2
Malignancy 4 0 0 4 4 0 0 4
Medication         
Hormone replacement 1 0 0 1 3 0 0 3
Herbal therapy - - - - 1 1 0 0
  1. *RA = rheumatoid arthritis, OA = osteoarthritis. Charlson inex refers to the classification of the comorbidity of a patient before surgery. CHF = congesive heart failure, MI = Myocardial infarction. §CKD = chronic kidney disease.