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Table 3 Meta-analyses

From: Effectiveness of physiotherapy exercise following total knee replacement: systematic review and meta-analysis

  Studies Patients Pooled effect size (CI) P-value I2(%)
Physiotherapy exercise compared with minimal intervention
Physical function
3-4 months follow up 3 254 −0.37 [−0.62, −0.12] 0.004 0%
6 month follow up 3 260 −0.43 [−0.95, 0.08] 0.10 76%
12 month follow up 4 397 −0.21 [−0.70, 0.29] 0.42 83%
Physical function in studies with low risk of bias
3-4 months follow up 2 119 −0.35 [−0.62, −0.08] 0.01 0%
6 month follow up 2 185 −0.64 [−1.15, −0.13] 0.01 65%
12 month follow up 2 253 −0.37 [−1.36, 0.61] 0.46 93%
Pain
3-4 months follow up 2 103 −0.45 [−0.85, −0.06] 0.02 0%
6 month follow up 4 287 −0.29 [−0.68, 0.10] 0.15 60%
12 month follow up 4 281 −0.15 [−0.64, 0.35] 0.57 75%
Pain in studies with low risk of bias
3-4 months follow up 1 27 −0.27 [−1.05, 0.50] 0.49  
6 month follow up 2 185 −0.58 [−0.88, −0.29] 0.0001 0%
12 month follow up 1 110 −0.73 [−1.12, −0.35] 0.0002  
Range of motion extension
3-4 months follow up 2 178 −4.14 [−7.10, 1.18] 0.006 82%
6 month follow up 1 74 0.00 [−1.37, 1.37] 1.00  
12 month follow up 2 217 0.42 [−0.54, 1.38] 0.39 0%
Range of motion extension in studies with low risk of bias
3-4 months follow up 1 143 −2.60 [−4.48, −0.72] 0.007  
6 month follow up 0     
12 month follow up 1 143 0.20 [−0.92, 1.32] 0.73  
Range of motion flexion
3-4 months follow up 4 321 −5.23 [−11.16, 0.70] 0.08 83%
6 month follow up 3 217 −4.06 [−6.67, −1.46] 0.02 0%
12 month follow up 4 360 −2.21 [−4.31, −0.10] 0.04 0%
Range of motion flexion in studies with low risk of bias
3-4 months follow up 1 116 −2.00 [−4.78, 0.78] 0.16  
6 month follow up 1 116 −5.00 [−8.14, −1.86] 0.002  
12 month follow up 2 259 −2.38 [−4.80, 0.05] 0.05 0%
Walking      
Longest follow up (all 12 months) 3 169 −0.17 [−0.48, 0.13] 0.27 0%
Home-based compared with outpatient delivery of physiotherapy exercise
Physical function
3-4 months follow up 4 310 −0.03 [−0.25, 0.19] 0.80 0%
6 month follow up 2 150 0.05 [−0.27, 0.38] 0.74 0%
12 month follow up 2 214 0.11 [−0.16, 0.38] 0.42 0%
Physical function in studies with low risk of bias
3-4 months follow up 2 199 −0.15 [−0.43, 0.13] 0.29 0%
6 month follow up 1 82 0.18 [−0.25, 0.62] 0.41  
12 month follow up 1 87 0.01 [−0.41, 0.44] 0.95  
Pain
3-4 months follow up 3 248 −0.00 [−0.25, 0.25] 0.98 0%
6 month follow up 1 85 −0.05 [−0.48, 0.38] 0.82  
12 month follow up 1 92 −0.13 [−0.53, 0.28] 0.55  
Pain in studies with low risk of bias
3-4 months follow up 2 207 −0.07 [−0.35, 0.20] 0.59 0%
6 month follow up 1 85 −0.05 [−0.48, 0.38] 0.82  
12 month follow up 1 92 −0.13 [−0.53, 0.28] 0.55  
Range of motion extension
3-4 months follow up 3 261 −0.21 [−0.46, 0.05] 0.11 6%
6 month follow up 0     
12 month follow up 1 83 −0.18 [−0.61, 0.25] 0.41  
Range of motion extension in studies with low risk of bias
3-4 months follow up 3 261 −0.21 [−0.46, 0.05] 0.11 6%
6 month follow up 0     
12 month follow up 1 83 −0.18 [−0.61, 0.25] 0.41  
Range of motion flexion
3-4 months follow up 3 329 −0.22 [−0.44, −0.01] 0.04 0%
6 month follow up 1 68 −0.18 [−0.65, 0.30] 0.47  
12 month follow up 2 202 0.07 [−0.21, 0.35] 0.61 0%
Range of motion flexion in studies with low risk of bias
3-4 months follow up 3 329 −0.22 [−0.44, −0.01] 0.04 0%
6 month follow up 1 68 −0.18 [−0.65, 0.30] 0.47  
12 month follow up 1 83 −0.05 [−0.48, 0.38] 0.81  
Walking      
Longest follow up (2 studies 12 months, 1 study 6 months) 3 267 −0.02 [−0.26, 0.22] 0.87 37%
  1. Pooled effect sizes are standardised mean differences except for range of motion where mean differences are reported (random effects models).