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Table 3 Dorsal/plantar flexing moments at the ankle, normalised with respect to body weight * height.

From: Muscle performance and ankle joint mobility in long-term patients with diabetes

  Mean value (SD) t value of multiple comparisons
  C D DN C vs D C vs DN D vs DN
Plantar flexion at -15° (p = 0.205) 3.84 (1.27) 3.27 (1.99) 3.31 (1.53) 1.465 - -
Plantar flexion at 0° (p = 0.328) 3.40 (1.36) 2.99 (1.50) 3.05 (1.26) 1.432 - -
Plantar flexion at +15° (p = 0.009) 2.49 (1.14) 2.70 (1.40) 1.93 (0.84) § 0.863 2.115 3.075
Plantar flexion at +30° (p = 0.011) 1.40 (0.81) 1.50 (0.70) 1.06 (0.53) § 0.699 2.185 2.990
Dorsal flexion at -15° (p = 0.231) 2.40 (1.26) 2.17 (1.04) 1.96 (1.15) - 1.718 -
Dorsal flexion at 0° (p = 0.002) 3.14 (1.34) 2.38 (1.31) * 2.21 (1.09) * 2.928 3.292 0.636
Dorsal flexion at +15° (p = 0.000) 3.38 (1.30) 2.45 (1.28) * 2.13 (1.09) * 3.658 4.518 1.223
Dorsal flexion at +30° (p = 0.000) 2.76 (0.85) 2.17 (0.99) * 1.88 (0.83) * 3.172 4.348 1.515
  1. Mean values and standard deviations are expressed in %Nm. Moments are referred to four angular positions in the sagittal plane, with the foot blocked at: 15° of dorsal flexion (-15°); 0° (neutral position); 15° and 30° of plantar flexion (+15°; +30°). Columns 2–4 show mean values and standard deviations; columns 5–7 show t values obtained from the comparisons of C vs D, C vs DN and D vs DN (ANOVA with Bonferroni correction, p < 0.05, t critical value = 2.355).
  2. C: controls; D: diabetic patients without neuropathy; DN: diabetic patients with neuropathy
  3. SD: standard deviation
  4. * C vs D or C vs DN (ANOVA with Bonferroni correction, p < 0.05 and t > 2.355)
  5. §D vs DN (ANOVA with Bonferroni correction, p < 0.05 and t > 2.355)