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Table 2 Active joint mobility of the foot-ankle complex in all reference planes: columns 2–4 show mean values and standard deviations, expressed in degrees; columns 5–7 show t values obtained from the comparisons of C vs D, C vs DN and D vs DN (ANOVA with Bonferroni correction, p < 0.05, t critical value = 2.355).

From: Muscle performance and ankle joint mobility in long-term patients with diabetes

  Mean value (SD) t value of multiple comparisons
  C D DN C vs D C vs DN D vs DN
Dorsal flexion (p = 0.000) 34.4(8.3) 29.8 (6.4) * 27.3 (5.8) * 3.034 4.355 1.658
Plantar flexion (p = 0.000) 40.1 (7.0) 36.4 (5.1) 32.4 (7.1) * 2.222 4.209 2.291
Range (p = 0.000) 74.6 (13.6) 66.2 (11.3) * 59.6 (10.1) * 3.011 4.994 2.302
External rotation (p = 0.003) 41.8 (7.1) 34.6 (13.5) * 35.0 (10.0) * 3.222 2.779 0.192
Internal rotation (p = 0.000) 39.0 (7.4) 30.1 (14.6) * 28.9 (10.1) * 3.784 3.925 0.473
Range (p = 0.000) 80.8 (12.3) 64.7 (27.4) * 64.0 (18.3) * 3.710 3.553 0.159
Eversion (p = 0.018) 15.3 (5.1) 16.2 (6.8) 12.4 (4.9) § 0.688 2.044 2.830
Inversion (p = 0.707) 30.8 (6.9) 30.0 (10.4) 31.5 (8.1) - - 0.820
Range (p = 0.613) 46.2 (9.5) 46.2 (14.4) 43.9 (11.0) - - 0.901
  1. C: controls; D: diabetic patients without neuropathy; DN: diabetic patients with neuropathy
  2. SD: standard deviation
  3. * C vs D or C vs DN (ANOVA with Bonferroni correction, p < 0.05 and t > 2.355)
  4. §D vs DN (ANOVA with Bonferroni correction, p < 0.05 and t > 2.355)