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Table 2 Change in outcome measures between baseline and 3 weeks – group differences.

From: Treatment of chronic back pain by sensory discrimination training. A Phase I RCT of a novel device (FairMed) vs. TENS

OUTCOME MEASURE MEAN SD LOWER C.I. (95%) UPPER C.I. (95%) SIGNIFICANCE*
VAS (Average)      
   FairMed -0.8 1.8 -1.5 -0.1 0.83
TENS -0.7 1.4 -1.3 -0.1  
PSE      
   FairMed 1.9 7.8 -1.0 4.8 0.21
TENS 4.4 7.5 1.5 7.4  
TSK      
   FairMed -1.8 5.8 -4.0 0.3 0.94
TENS -2.0 7.7 -5.0 1.1  
PCS      
   FairMed -1.6 5.4 -3.6 0.4 0.84
TENS 2.0 7.7 -5.0 1.1  
ODI      
   FairMed -0.6 8.7 -3.8 2.7 0.85
TENS -0.9 5.1 -3.0 1.1  
HAD-A      
   FairMed -1.4 2.7 -2.4 -0.4 0.14
TENS -0.3 3.0 -1.4 0.9  
HAD-D      
   FairMed -0.2 2.0 -1.0 0.5 0.49
TENS -0.6 1.9 -1.3 0.1  
Sit to Stand      
   FairMed 1.0 2.1 0.1 1.8 0.90
TENS 1.0 2.2 0.1 1.9  
Stairs      
   FairMed 0.4 1.9 -0.4 1.1 0.81
TENS 0.5 1.0 0.1 0.9  
Walk Distance      
   FairMed 3.1 41.4 -12.6 18.9 0.58
TENS 9.1 39.2 -6.4 24.6  
  1. SD (Standard Deviation).
  2. C.I. (Confidence Interval).
  3. VAS (Visual Analogue Scale).
  4. PSE (Pain Self-Efficacy).
  5. TSK (Tampa Scale for Kinesiophobia).
  6. PCS (Pain Catastrophising Scale).
  7. ODI (Oswestry Disability Index).
  8. HADS-A (Hospital Anxiety & Depression Scale – Anxiety).
  9. HADS-D (Hospital Anxiety & Depression Scale – Depression).
  10. (* p-value from One-Way ANOVA on mean change scores across treatments).