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Table 1 Participant Baseline Characteristics

From: Treatment of chronic back pain by sensory discrimination training. A Phase I RCT of a novel device (FairMed) vs. TENS

Treatment   Age (Years) Average Pain Intensity (VAS 0–10) Oswestry Disability Index (0–100%) PSE (0–60) TSK (17–60) PCS (0–52) Sit to Stand (N°/min) Stair Climb (N°/min) Walk Distance (metres/5 min)
FairMed N 32 (16 male; 16 female) 32 32 32 32 32 32 32 32
  Mean 52.7 6.3 40.8 31.0 40.4 19.6 13.7 6.5 235.6
  Std. Deviation 10.7 1.9 15.9 11.2 7.6 12.0 7.6 2.7 103.2
  Range 28 – 73 2 – 9 12 – 80 8 – 57 23 – 51 2 – 47 2 – 38 0 – 11.5 40 – 400
  Median 55 6 40 30 42 20.5 13 6 260
  IQR 47 – 59 5 – 8 30.5 – 47.5 21.8 – 37 34 – 46.8 10 – 26.5 8.5 – 16 5.3 – 8 160 – 300
TENS N 28 (14 male; 14 female) 28 28 28 28 28 28 28 28
  Mean 54.1 6.6 42.8 27.6 41.3 23.0 12.7 6.7 219.6
  Std. Deviation 12.5 1.4 14.8 10.1 7.4 11.3 6.7 3.0 111.7
  Range 27 – 74 4 – 10 18 – 74 8 – 44 29 – 55 5 – 44 4 – 29 1 – 12.5 0 – 400
  Median 55 7 40.1 27 42 22 11 6.5 250
  IQR 42.5 – 65.8 5 – 7 30.8 – 53.5 21.3 – 36 34 – 46.8 14.3 – 28.8 9 – 17 4.5 – 9 100 – 320