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Table 2 Baseline data and annual changes in anthropometry and femoral neck bone parameters.

From: A one-year exercise intervention program in pre-pubertal girls does not influence hip structure

  Baseline Annual changes P-value P-value
  Intervention Control p-value Intervention Control unadjusted adjusted
Age (years) 7.7 ± 0.6 7.9 ± 0.6 0.08     
Anthropometry
Weight (kg) 27.6 ± 5.5 27.4 ± 5.5 0.84 3.5 ± 2.2 3.2 ± 1.3 0.42  
Height (cm) 128 ± 5.2 129.1 ± 7.9 0.43 6 ± 1.2 5.7 ± 1.0 0.19  
Lean mass (kg) 19.8 ± 2.3 20.2 ± 2.8 0.42 2.2 ± 0.8 1.9 ± 0.6 0.01  
Fat mass (kg) 5.3 ± 3.9 5.2 ± 3.3 0.86 1.9 ± 1.5 1 ± 0.9 < 0.001  
Bone mass of femoral neck
Bone mineral content (BMC; g) 2.63 ± 0.563 2.54 ± 0.497 0.39 0.266 ± 0.554 0.252 ± 0.236 0.87 0.86
Bone mineral density (BMD; g/cm2) 0.743 ± 0.089 0.701 ± 0.090 0.04 0.038 ± 0.071 0.045 ± 0.042 0.61 0.86
Volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD; g/cm3) 0.377 ± 0.044 0.359 ± 0.047 0.07 0.010 ± 0.037 0.012 ± 0.024 0.81 0.55
Biomechanical calculations of femoral neck
Neck length (cm) 3.18 ± 0.401 3.25 ± 0.356 0.41 0.209 ± 0.348 0.237 ± 0.129 0.63 0.73
Periosteal width (cm) 2.46 ± 0.234 2.46 ± 0.225 0.89 0.086 ± 0.247 0.067 ± 0.113 0.64 0.68
Cross sectional area (CSA; cm2) 0.947 ± 0.156 0.889 ± 0.152 0.11 0.084 ± 0.180 0.091 ± 0.078 0.82 0.67
Section modulus (Z; cm3) 0.298 ± 0.090 0.272 ± 0.082 0.16 0.044 ± 0.088 0.049 ± 0.042 0.73 0.67
Cross-sectional moment of inertia (CSMI; cm4) 0.374 ± 0.159 0.338 ± 0.130 0.25 0.069 ± 0.167 0.074 ± 0.067 0.86 0.81
Endosteal width (cm) 2.30 ± 0.228 2.32 ± 0.224 0.74 0.078 ± 0.240 0.057 ± 0.114 0.59 0.62
Mean cortical thickness (cm) 0.076 ± 0.009 0.071 ± 0.009 0.02 0.004 ± 0.008 0.005 ± 0.005 0.44 0.97
  1. Bone mass and biomechanical calculations of femoral neck in the intervention group (n = 53) and control group (n = 50). After exclusion of outliers, technical errors, and missing scans, anthropometrics were evaluated in 53 cases and 50 controls and femoral neck variables in 42 cases and 43 controls.
  2. The data represent absolute values (means) ± SD. Comparison of annual changes in the intervention and control groups presented with the p-value unadjusted or adjusted for age at baseline and annual changes in weight and height. For BMD of femoral neck and mean cortical thickness, p-values were also adjusted in relation to the baseline values.