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Table 3 Biochemical urinary safety parameters

From: Choline-stabilized orthosilicic acid supplementation as an adjunct to Calcium/Vitamin D3 stimulates markers of bone formation in osteopenic females: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial

  Normal range Placebo (n = 37) ch-OSA
      3 mg Si (n = 33) 6 mg Si (n = 33) 12 mg Si (n = 33)
  LL UL Baseline T12 Baseline T12 Baseline T12 Baseline T12
Urine analysis*           
Glucose*    0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0
Proteins*    2 0 0 0 1 0 1 2
Ketons*    0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0
Bilirubine*    0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Urobilinogene*    0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Blood*    1 2 0 0 0 0 0 2
Nitrite*    0 0 0 1 1 0 1 0
Leucocyte esterase*    16 19 9 12 8 6 13 18
pH 4,6 8 6,49 ± 0,90 6,28 ± 0,71 6,08 ± 0,89 5,83 ± 0,51 6,20 ± 0,76 6,36 ± 0,84 6,00 ± 0,65 5,98 ± 0,66
Urea/creatinine 13,5 32 24,15 ± 7,16 26,41 ± 7,81 24,03 ± 8,22 24,24 ± 9,48 24,69 ± 6,01 24,76 ± 8,32 23,58 ± 7,08 22,13 ± 7,34
Creatinine (g/L) 0,60 1,80 0,63 ± 0,36 0,63 ± 0,41 0,63 ± 0,39 0,77 ± 0,45 (a) 0,50 ± 0,29 0,63 ± 0,42 0,66 ± 0,62 0,76 ± 0,63
Uric acid/creatinine 0,23 0,68 0,49 ± 0,20 0,47 ± 0,20 0,45 ± 0,19 0,39 ± 0,21 0,50 ± 0,21 0,43 ± 0,18 0,48 ± 0,25 0,42 ± 0,21
Sodium/creatinine (mmol/g) 90 200 166,09 ± 68,78 168,15 ± 99,21 178,37 ± 109,89 165,28 ± 157,62 171,38 ± 111,23 162,55 ± 100,52 144,02 ± 85,53 118,99 ± 85,45
Potassium/creatinine (mmol/g) 22,7 113,6 78,17 ± 40,39 66,96 ± 33,02 67,20 ± 43,67 54,49 ± 27,96 73,13 ± 46,85 66,05 ± 33,25 66,44 ± 28,54 57,37 ± 27,89
Calcium/creatinine (mg/g) 45 273 169,18 ± 85,86 239,76 ± 130,58 (a) 195,61 ± 114,65 268,46 ± 160,38 (a) 240,19 ± 136,88 261,81 ± 135,76 198,32 ± 101,83 190,55 ± 113,90
Phosphorus/creatinine 0,36 1,18 0,96 ± 0,31 0,90 ± 0,29 0,96 ± 0,32 0,82 ± 0,31(a) 0,93 ± 0,29 0,81 ± 0,36 0,99 ± 0,26 0,77 ± 0,26 (a)
Magnesium/creatinine (mg/g) 64 109 117,32 ± 51,29 125,79 ± 44,99 118,73 ± 57,22 119,54 ± 50,40 131,46 ± 46,21 125,54 ± 54,17 132,52 ± 65,26 110,76 ± 69,66
  1. Baseline urinary biochemical safety parameters and after 12 months treatment with placebo (Ca/vit D) and three different ch-OSA doses (Si + Ca/vit D; Si: 3, 6, 12 mg/day), mean ± SD. LL: Lower limit; UL: Upper limit; * number of patients with parameter present in urine; (a) p < 0.05 versus baseline (two-tailed t-test).