Skip to main content

Table 1 Inclusion and exclusion criteria

From: Differences across health care systems in outcome and cost-utility of surgical and conservative treatment of chronic low back pain: a study protocol

1. CLBP 7. specific CLBP
2. no relevant improvement under prior conservative treatment for one year 8. acute or subacute LBP
3. about to undergo surgical or further conservative treatment 9. comorbidity that determines overall well-being
4. age 18–65 years at the beginning of treatment 10. pregnancy
5. good understanding of German (CH) or English (NZ) 11. expected loss to follow-up
6. written consent 12. unwillingness to complete questionnaires