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Table 1 Mean ± SD and median (range) of muscle onset times, normalized muscle amplitudes, kinematic amplitudes and time of peak kinematics.

From: Are cervical multifidus muscles active during whiplash and startle? An initial experimental study

  Sled Startle
EMG onset time (ms)
   C4 level 129 ± 60 123 ± 64
  140 (34 – 191) 105 (58 – 222)
   C6 level 232 ± 175 182 ± 120
  194 (66 – 571) 126 (60 – 417)
EMG amplitude (%MVC)
   C4 level 137 ± 168 a 136 ± 123 a
  107 (12 – 532) 80 (39 – 337)
   C6 level 40 ± 25 57 ± 53 a
  36 (9 – 77) 28 (15 – 150)
Kinematics
   Head accel (m/s2) 9.7 ± 3.3 1.9 ± 1.0
  10.1 (5.6 – 15.2) 1.6 (0.5 – 3.5)
   Head extension (°) 15.6 ± 5.6 1.9 ± 3.1 a
  12.6 (10.0 – 25.9) 0.5 (0.1 – 8.8)
   Retraction (mm) 18.4 ± 6.9 4.3 ± 2.4 a
  19.4 (8.7 – 31.3) 5.2 (1.0 – 6.6)
Time to peak kinematics (ms)
   Head accel 123 ± 11 272 ± 168 a
  122 (106 – 145) 215 (124 – 581)
   Head extension 208 ± 51 a 557 ± 200
  190 (170 – 330) 510 (290 – 770)
   Retraction 173 ± 48 373 ± 187
  160 (110 – 240) 330 (130 – 710)
  1. a non-normally distributed, Shapiro-Wilks p < 0.05