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Table 5 The associations between combinations of explanatory variables and the four outcome variables (odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals). (N = 408)

From: Self-reported hard physical work combined with heavy smoking or overweight may result in so-called Modic changes

Combination of Independent variables LBPyear LBPlong DD VIP
Heavy smoking and hard physical work     
neither (n = 274) 1 1 1 1
either (n = 117) 1.3 (0.8–2.1) 1.2 (0.7–2.0) 1.4 (0.9–2.2) 2.2 (1.3–3.8)*
both (n = 17) 1.6 (0.5–5.1) 1.8 (0.6–5.1) 1.5 (0.5–4.0) 4.6 (1.6–13.0)*
Overweight and hard physical work     
neither (n = 193) 1 1 1 1
either (n = 171) 1.3 (0.8–2.0) 0.9 (0.6–1.5) 1.6 (1.1–2.4)* 1.3 (0.7–2.3)
both (n = 42) 1.5 (0.7–3.1) 1.2 (0.6–2.6) 1.7 (0.9–3.4) 2.9 (1.4–6.3)
Overweight and heavy smoking     
neither (n = 201) 1 1 1 1
either (n = 171) 1.3 (0.9–2.1) 1.2 (0.8–2.0) 1.5 (1.0–2.2 1.4 (0.8–2.4)
both (n = 36) 1.2 (0.5–2.6) 1.5 (0.7–3.3) 1.6 (0.8–3.3) 1.6 (0.8–3.9)
  1. LBPyear = LBP some time in the past year.
  2. LBPlong = LBP for altogether at least 30 days in the past year.
  3. DD = disc degeneration as defined in the methods section.
  4. VIP = vertebral inflammatory process as defined in the methods section.
  5. * Estimates that are statistically significantly different from "1" have been written in bold.