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Table 4 Frequency table showing the associations between the explanatory variables and the four outcome variables for 412 40-yr old Danes (percent and 95% confidence intervals). Estimates with non-overlapping confidence intervals were considered to be significantly different from each other.

From: Self-reported hard physical work combined with heavy smoking or overweight may result in so-called Modic changes

Independent variables LBPyear LBPlong DD VIP
Smoking     
None 64 (56–71) 27 (20–33) 51 (44–59) 15 (10–21)
1–19 cig/day 72 (65–79) 20 (14–26) 50 (42–57) 16 (11–22)
≥20 cig/day 73 (62–83) 33 (22–44) 57 (45–69) 26 (15–36)
BMI     
Underweight 50 (26–74) 15 (-2 -32) 40 (16–63) 10 (-4-24)
Normal weight 69 (62–75) 25 (19–31) 49 (42–55) 18 (13–23)
Overweight 70 (62–79) 28 (19–36) 59(50–68) 20 (13–27)
Heavy overweight 72 (60–83) 22 (11–32) 55 (42–68) 17 (7–26)
Work     
Sitting 67 (57–77) 20 (12–29) 43 (34–55) 11 (4–18)*
S itting/walking 67 (59–74) 22 (15–29) 58 (49–66) 19 (13–26)
Light physical 68 (59–78) 30 (21–40) 46 (35–56) 10 (3–16)
Hard physical 75 (54–84) 26 (17–36) 58 (48–69) 31 (21–41)*
  1. *The non-overlapping confidence intervals between the "best" and the "worst" categories are written in bold.
  2. LBPyear = LBP some time in the past year.
  3. LBPlong = LBP for altogether at least 30 days in the past year.
  4. DD = disc degeneration as defined in the methods section.
  5. VIP = vertebral inflammatory process as defined in the methods section