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Table 1 Physiotherapy program (adapted from Crossley et al, 2002).

From: Foot orthoses and physiotherapy in the treatment of patellofemoral pain syndrome: A randomised clinical trial

Intervention Dose
Patellar mobilisation:  
I. Passive patellar medial glide and tilt combined with transverse friction massage of the lateral retinaculum 4 × 30 seconds
I. Hamstring stretches 3 × 20 seconds; bilateral
II. 'Figure 4' anterior hip stretch (Figure 3) 3 × 20 seconds; bilateral
Patellar taping:  
I. Taping of the patella: Daily application for 6 weeks
   1. Medial tilt and posterior tilt  
   2. Medial glide and posterior tilt  
   3. Fat pad unloading  
   4. Medial rotation  
I. Hip external rotation retraining (Figure 4) 3 × 20 seconds; bilateral
II. Vasti retraining (with EMG biofeedback):  
   i. Isometric VMO contraction in sitting 3 × 10 repetitions (affected);
  1 × 10 repetitions (unaffected)
   ii. Inner range knee flexion in standing 3 × 10 repetitions
   iii. Step downs (when able to perform 5 pain-free repetitions):  
a) Slow eccentric lowering on affected leg from 10 cm step 3 × 10 repetitions
b) Increased step height (20 cm step) 3 × 10 repetitions
c) Alternating speed (down slow, up fast; down fast, up slow) 3 × 10 repetitions
Home exercise program:  
I. Self-mobilisation of the affected patella As above; twice daily
II. Patellar taping (as above)  
III. Stretches (as above)  
IV. Exercises (as above)