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Table 1 Descriptive information for the sample

From: The influence of expectation on spinal manipulation induced hypoalgesia: An experimental study in normal subjects

  Positive Neutral Negative Total Sample p
Sex: Male: 5 4 7 16 0.55
   Female: 15 16 13 44  
Age in years (sd) 22.95 (2.06) 23.10 (3.49) 23.20 (3.66) 23.08 (3.10) 0.97
Race: Caucasian: 18 14 16 48 0.23
   African      
   American: 1 1 1 3  
   Other: 1 5 3 9  
Education (years (sd)) 16.20 (1.32) 16.21 (1.51) 16.03 (1.26) 16.14 (1.35) 0.89
History of LBP: Yes: 5 3 2 10 0.70
   No: 14 15 17 46  
   Missing: 1 2 1 4  
Pain Threshold      
   Temperature (sd) 42.42 (5.25) 42.99 (2.89) 41.98 (3.12) 42.46 (3.86) 0.72
   NRS Rating (sd) 13.89 (11.72) 19.63 (20.33) 17.40 (18.16) 16.97 (17.01) 0.57
Baseline Pain Testing      
Lower Extremity NRS (sd) 34.92 (23.24) 34.01 (28.11) 27.62 (20.93) 32.10 (24.02) 0.59
Low Back NRS (sd) 46.22 (24.08) 52.99 (27.05) 43.86 (26.18) 47.76 (25.64) 0.52
Psychological Questionnaires      
PCS (sd) 15.15 (9.15) 17.30 (9.53) 14.75 (8.43) 15.73 (8.96) 0.63
FPQ (sd) 72.25 (13.47) 81.1 (19.43) 76.65 (14.81) 76.67 (16.24) 0.23
Anxiety VAS (sd) 23.20 (17.60) 21.89 (23.96) 24.30 (19.76) 23.15 (20.21) 0.94
  1. Sample demographic, baseline pain perception, and psychological characteristics. Variables were all obtained prior to randomization. Significance set at p ≤ 0.05. Temperature measures are in degrees Celsius. Pain ratings obtained through 0 to 100 numeric rating scale (NRS). PCS = Pain Catastrophizing Scale. FPQ = Fear of Pain Questionnaire. VAS = Visual Analog Scale.