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Table 5 Hazard ratios (multivariable-adjusted) for death of any causes within one year after discharge

From: The effect of time-to-surgery on outcome in elderly patients with proximal femoral fractures

Model variables All patients (n = 2916, death = 573)
  HR (95% CI); p-value
Time from fracture to surgeryA 1.04 (0.93 to 1.16); p = 0.55
AgeB 1.05 (1.04 to 1.06); p < 0.001
SexC 0.72 (0.58 to 0.88); p = 0.002
ASAD 1.60 (1.37 to 1.88); p < 0.001
BMIE 1.38 (1.16 to 1.65); p < 0.001
MalignancyF 1.84 (1.46 to 2.32); p < 0.001
Kidney dysfunctionG 1.34 (1.05 to 1.71); p = 0.02
COPD 1.39 (1.11 to 1.75); p = 0.004
Post-op complication – cardiovascular 1.87 (1.33 to 2.63); p < 0.001
Post-op complication – decubitus ulcers 2.08 (1.20 to 3.58); p = 0.009
Post-op complication – stroke 2.37 (1.05 to 5.32); p = 0.037
Post-op complication – implant 0.97 (0.54 to 1.75); p = 0.92
  1. A 0 ≤ 12 h, 12 h < 1 ≤ 36 h, 2 > 36 h; B age in years; C 1 = men 2 = women; D three ASA groups (American Society of Anesthesiologists ratings): 1 = ASA1 or ASA2, 2 = ASA3, 3 = ASA4 or ASA5; E Body mass index according to ESPEN limits for age 65+ (0: 22.0 to < 30.0; 1: < 22.0 or ≥ 30.0); F malignancy in patient history; G kidney impairment in patient history;