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Table 1 Differential diagnoses of torticollis

From: Is surgery recommended in adults with neglected congenital muscular torticollis? A prospective study

Congenital:
   Muscular
   Vertebral anomalies; failure of formation, segmentation or both
   Ocular
Acquired:
   Tumoral; eosinophilic granuloma, osteoma/osteoblatoma
   Traumatic; C1 fracture
   Inflammatory; Juvenile rheumatoid arthritis, respiratory tract infection, cervical adenitis
   Hysterical
   Paroxysmal torticollis of infancy
   Associated with ligamentous laxity; Down syndrome