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Table 3 Comparisons between upper lumbar and lower lumbar spine range of motion across postures and tasks.

From: Regional differences in lumbar spinal posture and the influence of low back pain

Posture/Activity LLx angle (°) ULx angle (°) p-value p-value adjusted for BMI ULx/LLx correlation (p-value)
Usual to slump sitting 2.5 ± 4.0 7.3 ± 7.0 < 0.001 0.072 0.525 (< 0.001)
Usual to sway standing 8.2 ± 5.4 0.8 ± 5.4 < 0.001 < 0.001 - 0.469 (< 0.001)
Usual stand to maximal flexion 35.0 ± 10.0 30.8 ± 9.9 0.003 0.033 - 0.442 (< 0.001)
Usual stand to maximal extension 20.6 ± 13.3 8.9 ± 11.1 < 0.001 0.001 - 0.426 (< 0.001)
Total standing ROM 55.7 ± 18.6 39.8 ± 17.0 < 0.001 0.042 - 0.460 (< 0.001)
Usual stand to pick up pen 31.4 ± 9.9 28.0 ± 9.1 0.004 0.140 - 0.332 (< 0.001)
Usual stand to pick up box 28.7 ± 10.2 24.0 ± 10.1 < 0.001 0.069 - 0.142 (0.071)
Usual stand to transfer pillow 19.9 ± 8.2 20.3 ± 9.3 0.775 0.290 - 0.186 (0.018)
Usual stand to transfer box 15.0 ± 7.3 13.9 ± 8.2 0.170 0.160 - 0.041 (0.601)
Usual stand to squat 26.5 ± 10.2 18.4 ± 11.8 < 0.001 0.009 - 0.008 (0.918)
  1. Repeated measure ANCOVA and correlations adjusted for BMI.
  2. LLx = Lower Lumbar, ULx = Upper Lumbar, BMI = Body Mass Index, ROM = Range of Motion.