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Table 2 Comparisons between upper lumbar and lower lumbar spine static and peak angles across postures and tasks.

From: Regional differences in lumbar spinal posture and the influence of low back pain

Posture/Activity ULx angle (°) LLx angle (°) p-value p-value adjusted for BMI ULx/LLx correlation (p-value)
Usual sitting 4.1 ± 8.8 -1.3 ± 8.8 < 0.001 0.497 0.036 (0.638)
Usual standing 23.4 ± 11.2 15.5 ± 9.6 < 0.001 0.016 - 0.505 (< 0.001)
Slump sitting 1.6 ± 9.1 -8.6 ± 6.1 < 0.001 0.770 - 0.111 (0.151)
Sway standing 31.2 ± 13.6 17.4 ± 11.9 < 0.001 0.576 - 0.58 (< 0.001)
Maximal flexion 11.8 ± 6.8 15.4 ± 5.9 < 0.001 0.026 - 0.062 (0.426)
Maximal extension 44.1 ± 19.9 25.8 ± 16.0 < 0.001 0.183 - 0.509 (< 0.001)
Pick up pen -8.1 ± 7.2 -12.5 ± 6.3 < 0.001 0.015 0.197 (0.012)
Pick up box -5.3 ± 8.3 -8.5 ± 8.5 < 0.001 0.108 0.274 (< 0.001)
Transfer pillow 3.5 ± 8.5 -4.7 ± 8.3 < 0.001 0.013 - 0.017 (0.825)
Transfer box 8.4 ± 8.9 1.7 ± 8.4 < 0.001 0.031 - 0.147 (0.062)
Squat -3.2 ± 9.0 -2.9 ± 9.6 0.866 0.968 0.346 (< 0.001)
  1. Repeated measures ANCOVA and correlations adjusted for BMI.
  2. LLx = Lower Lumbar, ULx = Upper Lumbar, BMI = Body Mass Index, Negative value = relative flexion (kyphosis) of lumbar spine.