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Table 5 Associations between beliefs about back pain and self-reported levels of low back pain intensity and disability

From: Negative beliefs about low back pain are associated with high pain intensity and high level disability in community-based women

Participant characteristics Pain intensity Disability
  Univariable analysis Multivariable analysis# Univariable analysis Multivariable analysis
  Odds ratio
(95% CI)
p value Odds ratio
(95% CI)
p value Odds ratio
(95% CI)
p value Odds ratio
(95% CI)
p value
Age (years)* 0.89
(0.78, 1.02)
0.1 0.67
(0.50, 0.89)
0.007 1.08
(0.91, 1.28)
0.4 0.94
(0.66, 1.34)
0.7
BMI (kg/m2)* 1.26
(1.07, 1.48)
0.005 1.22
(1.02, 1.45)
0.03 1.73
(1.43, 2.10)
<0.0001 1.61
(1.31, 1.98)
<0.0001
Smoking status 1.16
(0.67, 2.00)
0.6 0.99
(0.53, 1.87)
1.0 0.85
(0.42, 1.76)
0.7 0.99
(0.45, 2.16)
1.0
Alcohol intake 1.26
(0.81, 1.96)
0.3 1.75
(1.03, 2.97)
0.04 0.69
(0.42, 1.16)
0.2 1.10
(0.58, 2.12)
0.8
Partner status 1.28
(0.89, 1.84)
0.2 1.13
(0.74, 1.73)
0.6 1.02
(0.65, 1.61)
0.9 0.99
(0.57, 1.72)
1.0
Employment status 0.82
(0.58, 1.17)
0.3 0.62
(0.38, 1.01)
0.05 0.64
(0.41, 0.99)
0.045 0.74
(0.41, 1.35)
0.3
Menopause status^ 0.91
(0.64, 1.30)
0.6 1.08
(0.53, 2.19)
0.8 1.19
(0.76, 1.85)
0.5 0.86
(0.36, 2.04)
0.7
Back pain now 20.8
(12.1, 35.7)
<0.0001 18.8
(10.3, 34.2)
<0.0001 4.78
(3.03, 7.55)
<0.0001 4.58
(2.71, 7.72)
<0.0001
Back beliefs score^ 0.98
(0.96, 1.01)
0.3 1.03
(0.99, 1.07)
0.1 0.91
(0.88, 0.95)
<0.0001 0.93
(0.89, 0.97)
0.001
Menopause status Low versus high pain intensity   3.24 (1.32, 7.96) 0.01     
Back beliefs score Low versus high pain intensity   0.93 (0.88, 0.99) 0.02     
  1. BMI – Body mass index. CI – confidence intervals. * Odds ratio per 10 year difference in age and 5 kg/m2 difference in BMI. #This multivariable analysis was performed using a partial proportional odds model [15], rather than ordinary ordinal regression [14]. ^ These variables demonstrated a non-parallel relationship with pain intensity, with data representing the comparison between no pain and low intensity pain groups