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Table 2 Classification of each DASH item

From: The Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand Questionnaire (DASH) can measure the impairment, activity limitations and participation restriction constructs from the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF)

  t-values (df = 23) for the weighted judgements against the three ICF constructs
DASH item Impairment Activity Limitations Participation Restrictions Designation
Core items
Please rate your ability to do the following activities in the last week by circling the number below the appropriate response.
1. Open a tight or new jar. -3.0 16.6* -1.1 A
2. Write. -1.9 26.3* 0.5 A
3. Turn a key. -2.1*i 10.3* -0.7 A
4. Prepare a meal. -4.4 8.6* 2.9 A
5. Push open a heavy door. -2.8 36.7* -0.9 A
6. Place an object on a shelf above your head. -1.6 11.9* -2.8 A
7. Do heavy household chores (e.g., wash walls, wash floors). -3.9 8.7* 0.5 A
8. Garden or do yard work. -4.0 4.7* 1.9 A
9. Make a bed. -4.3*i 32.9* 0.2 A
10. Carry a shopping bag or briefcase. -2.1 3.5 -0.4 NONE
11. Carry a heavy object (over 10 lbs). -2.5 29.1* -1.5 A
12. Change a lightbulb overhead. -4.3*i 10.1* -0.9 A
13. Wash or blow dry your hair. -2.8 26.8* -0.2 A
14. Wash your back. -2.9 25.8* -1.7 A
15. Put on a pullover sweater. -1.8 31.8* -2.4 A
16. Use a knife to cut food. -2.0 26.8* 0.8 A
17. Recreational activities which require little effort (e.g., cardplaying, knitting, etc.). -5.3*i 5.2* 10.5* AP
18. Recreational activities in which you take some force or impact through your arm, shoulder or hand (e.g., golf, hammering, tennis, etc.). -0.8 4.5* 4.8* AP
19. Recreational activities in which you move your arm freely (e.g., playing frisbee, badminton, etc.). -1.1 5.7* 9.6* AP
20. Manage transportation needs (getting from one place to another). -6.4*i 3.2 4.8* P
21. Sexual activities. -1.8 7.9* 10.3* AP
22. During the past week, to what extent has your arm, shoulder or hand problem interfered with your normal social activities with family, friends, neighbours or groups? -1.0 0.3 32.7* P
23. During the past week, were you limited in your work or other regular daily activities as a result of your arm, shoulder or hand problem? -1.5 7.3* 4.8* AP
24. Arm, shoulder or hand pain. 7.0* -9.1*a -8.3*p I
25. Arm, shoulder or hand pain when you performed any specific activity. 9.8* 2.1 -2.2 I
26. Tingling (pins and needles) in your arm, shoulder or hand. 5.8* -8.9*a -8.9*p I
27. Weakness in your arm, shoulder or hand. 11.2* -5.3*a -6.3*p I
28. Stiffness in your arm, shoulder or hand. 11.1* -6.0*a -6.8*p I
29. During the past week, how much difficulty have you had sleeping because of the pain in your arm, shoulder or hand? 0.9 1.2 -0.1 NONE
30. I feel less capable, less confident or less useful because of my arm, shoulder or hand problem. -0.6 -2.1 1.9 NONE
Work module (optional)
Please circle the number that best describes your physical ability in the past week. Did you have any difficulty:
1. using your usual technique for your work? -1.1 7.2* 2.1 A
2. doing your usual work because of arm, shoulder or hand pain? -0.5 3.6 4.3* P
3. doing your work as well as you would like? -5.1*i 3.9 3.0 NONE
4. spending your usual amount of time doing your work? -4.6*i 5.1* 3.6 A
Sports/performing arts module (optional)
Please circle the number that best describes your physical ability in the past week. Did you have any difficulty:
1. using your usual technique for playing your instrument or sport? -1.8 17.9* 3.2 A
2. playing your musical instrument or sport because of arm, shoulder or hand pain? 0.0 10.6* 6.2* AP
3. playing your musical instrument or sport as well as you would like? -3.3 5.3* 3.7 A
4. spending your usual amount of time practising or playing your instrument or sport? -4.9*i 5.4* 5.6* AP
  1. *p < 0.001, item is a significant match to the theoretical construct; * ip < 0.001, item is a significant NO match to the definition of impairment; *ap < 0.001, item is a significant NO match to the definition of activity limitations; *pp < 0.001, item is a significant NO match to the definition of participation restrictions. NONE = items for which there was no significant agreement between the judges.