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Table 3 Cox regression of the association between widespread pain recent week, defined as WSP 4limbs, and WSPconlimbs, respectively and gender, age, sick leave or pre-retirement, annual income, and citizenship (n = 7637).a

From: Prevalence of widespread pain and associations with work status: a population study

  WSP4limbs WSPconlimbs
Explanatory variable Prevalence ratio (PR) 95% confidence interval Prevalence ratio (PR) 95% confidence interval
Reference category 1.0b - 1.0c -
Age effect among females     
   Age     
< 30 0.51 0.22 – 1.16 0.65 0.33 – 1.27
30–49 2.56 1.47 – 4.44 2.83 1.76– 4.54
50–64 3.80 2.18 – 6.63 4.49 2.79 – 7.21
65- 3.99 2.23 – 7.13 3.92 2.37 – 6.50
Age effect among males     
   Age     
30–49 1.23 0.65 – 2.31 1.50 0.89 – 2.54
50–64 1.81 0.98 – 3.34 2.21 1.32 – 3.69
65- 2.83 1.47 – 5.44 2.84 1.63 – 4.96
Sick leave/pre-retirement 2.76 2.13 – 3.58 2.47 2.00 – 3.05
Income below median 1.79 1.41 – 2.28 1.46 1.21 – 1.76
Non-Nordic citizen 2.40 1.56 – 3.71 1.86 1.24 – 2.78
  1. a Civil status and urban residence had no significant impact on the pain prevalence and did not act as confounders and were thus omitted from the regression model.
  2. b The model-based estimate of the prevalence for the reference category, i.e., for male Nordic-citizens below the age of 30, not on sick leave or pre-retired, and with an income above median was 1.2% (95% confidence interval 0.7 – 2.1%).
  3. c The model-based estimate of the prevalence for the reference category, i.e., for male Nordic-citizens below the age of 30, not on sick leave or pre-retired, and with an income above median was 2.0% (95% confidence interval 1.3 – 3.2%).