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Table 2 Results of Inter- and intra-observer reliability

From: Reliability of movement control tests in the lumbar spine

Results inter-observer reliability
  Waiters Pelvic One leg One leg Sitting Rocking Rocking Prone knee Prone knee Crook
test bow tilt stance R. stance L. Knee ext. Fx. Ext. Bend Ext. bend Rot. lying
pair 1           
Kappa Coefficient (CI 95%) 0.71 (0.50–0.92) 0.60 (0.36–0.84) 0.56 (0.27–0.85) 0.70 (0.57–0.93) 0.80 (0.61–0.99) 0.68 (0.45–0.91) 0.66 (0.39–0.93) 0.75 (0.52–0.98) 0.62 (0.37–0.87) 0.44 (0.18–0.70)
% Agreement 85.7 80.0 88.0 88.0 90.4 88.0 92.8 97.6 90.5 78.6
Std Error 0.11 0.12 0.14 0.19 0.09 0.18 0.14 0.11 0.13 0.13
P-value < 0.001 < 0.001 < 0.001 < 0.001 < 0.001 < 0.001 < 0.001 < 0.001 < 0.001 0.003
pair 2           
Kappa (CI 95%) 0.52 (0.29–0.75) 0.70 (0.48–0.92) 0.29 (0.00–0.84) 0.80 (0.54–1.00) 0.64 (0.40–0.88) 0.45 (0.16–0.74) 0.69 (0.37–1.00) 0.19 (0.00–0.42) 0.54 (0.28–0.80) 0.32 (0.10–0.54)
% Agreement 75.0 92.5 97.5 92.5 95.0 90.0 92.5 87.5 87.5 65.0
Std Error 0.12 0.11 0.26 0.13 0.12 0.15 0.17 0.12 0.14 0.11
P-value < 0.001 < 0.001 0.053 < 0.001 < 0.001 0.004 < 0.001 0.11 0.001 0.012
Kappa Ø 0.62 0.65 0.43 0.65 0.72 0.57 0.68 0.47 0.58 0.38
Results intra-observer reliability
Observer 1           
kappa 0.75 (0.55–0.95) 0.80 (0.61–0.99) 0.64 (0.40–0.88) 0.67 (0.44–0–90) 1.0 0.73 (0.44–1.00) 0.22 (0.00–0.64) 0.59 (0.29–0.81) 0.60 (0.31–0.91) 0.84 (0.66–1.00)
% Agreement 97.5 95.0 92.5 87.5 100 97.5 95.0 92.5 92.5 97.5
Std Error 0.10 0.01 0.12 0.12 0.0 0.15 0.24 0.15 0.15 0.09
P-value < 0.001 < 0.001 < 0.001 < 0.001 < 0.001 < 0.001 0.16 < 0.001 < 0.001 < 0.001
Observer 2           
Kappa (CI 95%) 1.0 0.8 (0.61–0.99) 0.69 (0.29–0.99) 1.0 0.9 (0.77–1.00) 0.70 (0.48–0.92) 0.8 (0.56–1.00) 0.8 (0.62–0.98) 0.95 (0.94–0.96) 0.88 (0.71–1.00)
% Agreement 100 95 100 100 100 97.5 100 92.5 100 97.5
Std Error 0.0 0.09 0.23 0.0 0.07 0.11 0.12 0.94 0.05 0.09
P-value 0.000 < 0.001 < 0.001 0.000 < 0.001 < 0.001 < 0.001 < 0.001 < 0.001 < 0.001
Kappa Ø 0.88 0.80 0.67 0.84 0.95 0.72 0.51 0.70 0.78 0.86