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Table 3 Mean and SD of vertebral displacement, for asymptomatic subjects, resulting from the PU maneuver (first row). Values for vertebral displacement above (second row) and below (third row) two standard deviations (2SD) from the mean of asymptomatic subjects are in bold. Number of subjects with vertebral displacement above and below two standard deviations (2SD) from the asymptomatic group mean is listed bellow. Note that 1 subject in the asymptomatic group and 1 in the symptomatic group exhibited motion outside of the 2SD range. There was no difference, between groups, in number of subjects exhibiting vertebral displacement outside the ± 2SD from the mean of the asymptomatic subjects.

From: Segmental lumbar mobility in individuals with low back pain: in vivo assessment during manual and self-imposed motion using dynamic MRI

Motion-segment L1 – L2 L2 – L3 L3 – L4 L4 – L5 L5 – S1 Number of subjects with at least one level above 2SD or below 2SD (%)
Mean (SD) segmental motion [degrees] for asymptomatic subjects 3.4 (1.6) 4.1 (2.5) 4.6 (2.2) 4.1 (1.9) 4.7 (2.3)  
+2SD [degrees] 6.6 9.1 9.0 7.9 9.3  
Asymptomatic
(N= 20)
0 2a 0 1a 1 3 (15%)
Symptomatic
(N = 45)
5b 1b 0 5 2 12 (26.7%)
-2SD [degrees] 0.2 -0.9 0.4 0.3 0.1  
Asymptomatic
(N = 20)
0 0 0 1 0 1 (5%)
Symptomatic
(N = 45)
1 0 2 0 1 4 (8.9%)
  1. a includes subject 1891; b includes subjects 2012