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Table 2 Mean and SD of vertebral displacement (degrees), for asymptomatic subjects, resulting from the PA testing procedure (first row). Values for vertebral displacement above (second row) and below (third row) two standard deviations (2SD) from the mean of asymptomatic subjects are in bold. Number of subjects with vertebral displacement above and below two standard deviations (2SD) from the asymptomatic group mean is listed bellow. Note that 1 subject in the asymptomatic group and 4 in the symptomatic group exhibited vertebral displacement outside of the 2SD range.

From: Segmental lumbar mobility in individuals with low back pain: in vivo assessment during manual and self-imposed motion using dynamic MRI

Motion-segment L1 – L2 L2 – L3 L3 – L4 L4 – L5 L5 – S1 Number of subjects with at least one level above 2SD or below 2SD (%)
Mean (SD) vertebral displacement [degrees] for asymptomatic subjects 3.7 (1.4) 3.8 (1.4) 3.5 (1.7) 3.2 (1.3) 3.6 (1.1)  
+2SD [degrees] 6.5 6.5 6.9 5.8 5.8  
Asymptomatic
(N = 20)
1 0 0 0 0 1 (5%)
Symptomatic
(N = 45)
4c,d 2c,d 2 4c 9 18 (40%)
-2SD [degrees] 0.9 0.9 0.0 0.9 1.3  
Asymptomatic
(N = 20)
0 1a 1a 1 0 2 (10%)
Symptomatic
(N = 45)
2b 0 0 0 2b 2 (4.4%)
Chi- square     10.0
p < 0.01
4.18
p < 0.05
 
  1. a includes subject 164; b includes subjects 54 and 173; c includes subject 1951; d includes subject 1955