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Table 2 Fall risk factors predicting the risk of falling within 3 months after a fracture: univariate analysis

From: Risk of falling in patients with a recent fracture

  Total Women
  (n = 277) (n = 200)
  OR* 95% CI OR* 95% CI
Sex (female) 3.27 1.23–8.66 - -
Age (80+ yrs vs. 50–59) 3.55 1.30–9.65 2.88 0.99–8.40
Mobility (TGUGT)†‡ 1.88 0.92–3.86 1.75 0.79–3.85
≥2 falls in previous year 1.92 0.98–3.77 1.76 0.86–3.64
Use of benzodiazepines 0.93 0.30–2.82 1.11 0.35–3.55
ADL difficulties†‡ 2.67 1.37–5.22 2.20 1.07–4.56
Arthrosis 0.84 0.41–1.70 0.61 0.28–1.31
Visual impairment 1.52 0.69–3.35 1.03 0.42–2.58
Urinary incontinence 2.07 0.98–4.41 1.49 0.67–3.31
Polypharmacy (≥ 5 pills/day) 2.58 1.30–5.10 2.51 1.19–5.28
Orthostatic hypotension 1.98 0.82–4.74 2.22 0.88–5.60
Cognitive impairment 1.67 0.76–3.69 1.33 0.55–3.21
Handgrip strength 1.95 0.94–4.05 1.46 0.64–3.31
FTBS feet together 1.43 0.71–2.89 1.48 0.68–3.21
FTBS semi-tandem stand 1.55 0.77–3.11 1.61 0.75–3.45
FTBS tandem stand 1.36 0.70–2.64 1.39 0.68–2.85
FTBS one leg stand 1.83 0.91–3.70 1.79 0.81–3.95
Chair stand test 1.66 0.85–3.26 1.77 0.85–3.68
  1. *Values presented are crude OR's, significant OR's are printed in bold.
  2. Fall risk factors according to the Dutch guideline on fall prevention.
  3. ‡ Abbreviations and cut off values: Timed Get Up and Go Test (TGUGT) cut off at 12 seconds. Activities of Daily Living (ADL) difficulties: fall risk if he or she had difficulties with a least two out of the three following questions of Groningen Activity Restriction Scale: a) Can you, fully independently, go up and down the stairs; b) Can you, fully independently, walk outdoors (if necessary with a cane); and c) Can you, fully independently, take care of your feet and toenails?
  4. Visual impairment: cut off at visual acuity less than 0.4.
  5. Orthostatic hypotension: 20 mmHg drop in systolic BP and/or 10 mmHg drop in diastolic BP 1 minute after standing.
  6. Cognitive impairment : Abbreviated Mental Test score ≤ 8.
  7. Handgrip strength : For women, the cut-off point was < 30 kg, for men the cut-off point was < 50 kg.
  8. Four Test Balance Scale (FTBS): If the patient was not able to hold at least one of these positions for 10 seconds, this counted as one fall risk.
  9. Chair stand test: If the patient was not able to complete the test within two minutes this was regarded as a fall risk.