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Table 4 Mean 3D scapular attitudes (degrees) and standard deviations (SD) calculated in three static shoulder positions.

From: The reliability of three-dimensional scapular attitudes in healthy people and people with shoulder impingement syndrome

   Three-dimensional scapular attitudes (in degrees)
   Healthy subjects SIS subjects
     Impaired shoulder   Non-impaired shoulder  
Arm Positions Scapular Rotations n = 30 shoulders   n = 8 shoulders   n = 8 shoulders  
   Mean SD Mean SD Mean SD
Rest A(-) P(+) T -9.2 4.3 -7.4 3.7 -6.6 4.2
  L(-) M(+) R -1.1 4.7 -7.6 3.7 -5.3 4.0
  PRO(+) RET(-) -31.8 5.6 -33.3 6.8 -32.1 5.5
Flexion 70° A(-) P(+) T -3.8 4.5 -3.2 3.9 -1.9 5.2
  L(-) M(+) R -9.3 3.7 -14.5 4.5 -12.4 4.2
  PRO(+) RET(-) -39.8 7.5 -40.7 8.2 -39.5 6.7
Abduction 90° A(-) P(+) T -1.6 5.6 -1.7 5.2 -1.4 7.1
  L(-) M(+) R -27.5 4.2 -30.4 4.7 -31.6 9.0
  PRO(+) RET(-) -19.1 6.1 -18.6 8.7 -20.1 6.6
  1. Abbreviations: A-PT, anterior-posterior tilting; L-MR, lateral-medial rotation; PRO-RET, protraction-retraction; SIS, shoulder impingement syndrome. The 3D scapular attitudes were calculated from the mean of the two first trials from the first session. The method of calculation relative to the trunk was used to calculate the 3D scapular attitudes.