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Table 3 Odds ratios and confidence intervals for future traumatic musculoskeletal pain at 1-year follow-up by baseline predictive factors, using univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses (1113 preteens and early adolescents).

From: Risk factors for development of non-specific musculoskeletal pain in preteens and early adolescents: a prospective 1-year follow-up study

Variables Traumatic musculoskeletal pain
Univariate analysis
Traumatic musculoskeletal pain
Multivariate analysis
Age   
   9–10 years Reference Reference
   11–13 years 0.93 (0.51–1.71) 0.64 (0.32–1.26)
Sex   
   Males Reference Reference
   Females 0.78 (0.43–1.44) 0.90 (0.45–1.81)
Psychosomatic symptoms1   
   Headache 1.50 (0.76–3.00) 1.22 (0.56–2.65)
   Abdominal pain 1.10 (0.42–2.84) 0.85 (0.30–2.41)
   Feeling sad or down 1.25 (0.52–3.03) 0.80 (0.30–2.14)
   Difficulties in falling asleep 1.75 (0.88–3.47) 1.47 (0.67–3.24)
   Day-time tiredness 2.37 (1.27–4.45) 2.97 (1.41–6.26)
   Waking up during nights 1.94 (0.91–4.15) 1.64 (0.70–3.85)
Hypermobility score°   
   Less than 6 Reference Reference
   6 or more 0.60 (0.14–2.52) 0.70 (0.16–3.04)
Frequency of physical exercise   
   0–2 Reference Reference
   3–4 1.52 (0.73–3.16) 1.80 (0.83–3.93)
   5–7 3.10 (1.44–6.71) 3.40 (1.39–8.31)
  1. 1Reported in a frequency of at least once a week
  2. °Using Beighton test. A child was categorized as hypermobile if his/her hypermobility score was six or more.