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Table 1 Inter-rater reliability. Fifty participants tested by A (the physiotherapist) and B (the research assistant). The five tests that required manual fixation are italicized. ICC in bold text indicates acceptable ICC (> .60). The mean difference between the measurements by A and B is compared, p-value in bold text indicates a significant difference (p < .05). + indicates acceptable, – indicates poor inter-rater reliability.

From: The reliability of a 10-test package for patients with prolonged back and neck pain: could an examiner without formal medical education be used without loss of quality? A methodological study

10-test package (including 16 sub-tests): Forward bending (cm) Modified Schober (cm) Lateral bending (cm) Trunk rotation (°) Active-straight-leg raise (°) Cervical bending (°) Cervical rotation (°) Abdom. endurance (seconds) Mod. Biering-Sørensen (sec.) Modified PILE (kg)  
    Right Left Right Left Right Left Forward Backward Right Left    Lumbar Cervical
All of the 50 participants                 
ICC .99 .79 .93 .95 .82 .85 .94 .90 .61 .84 .70 .69 .92 .91 .97 .97
95% CI of ICC .98–1.00 .67–.88 .89–.96 .91–.97 .70–.89 .75–.91 .91–.97 .86–.95 .45–.78 .78–.92 .54–.83 .51–.81 .87–.96 .85–.95 .95–.98 .94–.98
SE of measurement 1.2 .7 1.3 1.1 6 6 4 6 7 5 6 6 8 16 2.2 1.8
Mean 6.4 6.8 17.9 18.1 48 47 68 70 52 65 65 68 32 79 27.8 19.3
Mean difference -.1 .2 .3 .4 1 -1 3 4 4 3 2 1 -2 -8 .5 .4
95% CI of mean diff. -.6–.4 -.1–.5 -.2–.8 -.1–.9 -1–3.7 -2.8–1.8 1.2–4.6 1.6–6.0 1.2–6.7 1.3–5.1 -.4–4 -1.0–3.9 -5.4–1.4 -14.3–1.1 -.4–1.3 -.3–1.2
p-value NS NS NS NS NS NS .002 .001 .006 .001 NS NS NS .02 NS NS
Inter-rater reliability + + + + + + - - - - + + + - + +
30 patients                 
ICC .99 .94 .98 .97 .85 .88 .96 .96 .52 .81 .64 .68 .90 .96 .98 .98
95% CI of ICC .98–1.00 .90–.97 .93–.98 .95–.98 .74–.91 .81–.93 .95–.98 .94–.98 .36–.74 .69–.89 .44–.78 .49–.80 .85–.95 .92–.98 .96–.99 .96–.99
SE of measurement 1.4 .4 1.0 .9 6 5 4 4 8 5 6 7 6 10 2.1 1.5
Mean 9.2 6.6 16.4 16.8 46 43 64 65 48 60 61 66 16 54 24.6 17.2
Mean difference .0 .2 .1 -.2 1 2 2 2 5 4 2 -1 -3 -2 .3 -.1
95% CI of mean diff. -.8–.8 -.1–.4 -.5–.6 -.7–.3 -1.6–4.3 -.9–4.3 .1–3.9 .2–4.2 .8–8.9 .9–6.3 -1.7–4.9 -4.1–3.2 -6.0–.2 -7.3–3.5 -.8–1.4 -9–.6
p-value NS NS NS NS NS NS .04 .04 .02 .01 NS NS .04 NS NS NS
Inter-rater reliability + + + + + + - - - - + + - + + +
20 healthy subjects                 
ICC .95 .22 .79 .85 .75 .75 .84 .70 .59 .86 .66 .63 .86 .69 .95 .94
95% CI of ICC .92–.97 .07–.46 .68–.89 .84–.95 .59–.85 .64–.87 .78–.92 .62–.86 .40–.76 .80–.93 .49–.80 .58–.84 .76–.92 .59–.85 .92–.97 .91–.97
SE of measurement .9 1.0 1.5 1.1 6 6 5 7 6 4 5 4 12 22 2.3 2.1
Mean 2.2 7.1 20.1 20.2 50 52 75 77 58 72 70 72 55 116 32.5 22.4
Mean difference -.3 .3 .8 1.4 2 -4 4 6 3 3 2 4 0 -16 .7 1.3
95% CI of mean diff. -.8–.3 -.4–.9 -.3–1.8 .6–2.1 -2.4–5.4 -7.8–.3 .8–7.6 1.5–10.8 -1.2–6.3 .0–5.3 -1.0–5.2 1.6–7.0 -8.0–7.3 -30.7–2.1 -.8–2.2 -.1–2.7
p-value NS NS NS .001 NS NS .02 .01 NS .047 NS .004 NS .03 NS NS
Inter-rater reliability + - + - + + - - - - + - + - + +
  1. ICC = Intra-class-correlation coefficient. NS = Not significant. SE = Standard error