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Table 3 Associations with kinesiophobia: results of univariate and multivariate linear regression analyses.

From: Kinesiophobia in patients with non-traumatic arm, neck and shoulder complaints: a prospective cohort study in general practice

  Total population (n = 679)
   Univariate Multivariate
Associated variables   B (95% CI) B (95% CI)
Patient characteristics    
   Older age (45–64 yrs)   0.67 (-0.26, 1.60)  
   Male   0.33 (-0.61, 1.28)  
   Educational levela low 0  
  medium 0.98* (0.01, 1.95)  
  high -1.58* (-2.64, -0.56)  
   Having paid work   -0.03 (-1.16, 1.10)  
   Active sports participation, = 1 h/week   -1.14* (-2.07, -0.20)  
Complaint- specific determinants    
   Duration of the complaint 0–6 weeks 0  
  6 weeks-6 months -0.66 (-1.76, 0.43)  
  > 6 months 1.28* (0.21, 2.34)  
   Complaint severity in the last week, score > 6   1.80* (0.86, 2.74)  
   Disability, DASH score > 35.34   3.90* (3.01, 4.78) 2.78 (1.92,3.65)
   Musculoskeletal comorbidity   2.38* (1.46, 3.29) 1.89 (1.05,2.74)
   Recurrent complaint   1.08* (0.04, 2.11)  
   Multiple- sited complaint   1.53* (0.58, 2.48)  
   Locationb neck -0.00 (-1.01, 1.01)  
  upper back 0.82 (-0.92, 2.56)  
  shoulder 1.44* (0.51, 2.37) 0.86 (0.04,1.69)
  upper arm -0.49 (-1.89, 0.91)  
  elbow 1.06 (-0.70, 2.19)  
  forearm 0.56 (-1.39, 2.52)  
  wrist -0.73 (-2.57, 1.10)  
  hand -0.15 (-1.55, 1.25)  
Psychosocial characteristics    
   Low social support, SOS (12–60), score < 56   2.33* (1.37, 3.29) 1.17 (0.28,2.05)
   Much catastrophizing, CSQ (0–60), score > 9   4.26* (3.39. 5.14) 3.15 (2.27,4.03)
   Somatization, 4DSQ (0–32) low (0-10) 0 0
  medium (11–20) 0.45 (-0.68, 1.57) -1.27 (-2.35,-0.19)
  high (21–32) 6.84* (4.63, 9.05) 2.39 (0.19, 4.60)
   Distress, 4DSQ (0–32) low (0–10) 0 0
  medium (11–20) 0.78 (-0.30, 1.85) 0.07 (-0.96, 1.09)
  high (21–32) 4.22* (2.80, 5.64) 1.61 (0.12, 3.10)
   Yes, I can influence my health through my own behaviour   -0.55 (-1.50, 0.40)  
  1. n = number of patients; B = unstandardized coefficients; * p < 0.10; aEducational level: low: no education, primary school or lower vocational school; medium: lower or higher general secondary school level or middle vocational school); high: higher vocational school or university); bMore than one location is possible; DASH = disability of arm shoulder and hand questionnaire;4DSQ = four-dimensional symptom questionnaire; SOS = social support scale ;CSQ = coping strategy questionnaire. Multivariate linear regression analysis: Adjusted R2 = 0.24 (explained variance) and the intercept = 21.17; total number of complete cases, n = 675.