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Table 5 Univariate analyses for factors from the MD and MRI data sheets associated with a diagnosis of the cauda equina type of LSS

From: A diagnostic support tool for lumbar spinal stenosis: a self-administered, self-reported history questionnaire

  Radicular type (n = 87) Cauda Equina type (n = 50) Odds Ratio 95% CI p-value
Age (years) > 50 94.3% 96.0% 1.46 0.27 – 7.84 0.655
Gender (Female) 51.7% 56.0% 1.20 0.60 – 2.38 0.608
Symptoms      
   Leg pain or numbness (+) 97.7% 96.0% 0.56 0.08 – 4.14 0.569
   Low back pain (+) 65.5% 62.0% 0.86 0.42 – 1.77 0.679
   Worse when walking but relieved by taking a rest 96.6% 96.0% 0.86 0.14 – 5.31 0.868
   Numbness in both legs (+) 11.5% 82.0% 35.08 13.20 – 93.19 < 0.001
   Numbness in the soles of both feet (+) 6.9% 78.0% 47.86 16.49 – 138.9 < 0.001
   Numbness around the buttocks (+) 11.5% 68.0% 6.36 6.74 – 39.73 < 0.001
   Numbness without pain 10.3% 37.0% 5.31 2.17 – 13.01 < 0.001
   A burning sensation around the buttocks 6.9% 34.0% 6.95 2.52 – 19.19 < 0.001
   Walking nearly causes urination 4.6% 26.0% 7.29 2.23 – 23.86 < 0.001
   Worse when standing for a while 92.0% 82.0% 0.40 0.14 – 1.15 0.08
   Symptoms improve on bending forward 86.2% 74.0% 0.46 0.19 – 1.10 0.07
Physical Examination      
   Straight Leg Raising test positive 21.8% 22.0% 1.01 0.44 – 2.34 0.983
   Symptoms induced by having patients bend forward (+) 19.5% 22.0% 1.16 0.49 – 2.73 0.731
   Symptoms induced by having patients bend backward (+) 63.2% 58.0% 0.80 0.39 – 1.64 0.546
   Abnormal manual muscle strength test 1) 9.2% 12.0% 1.35 0.44 – 4.13 0.602
   Sensory disturbance      
   (-) 49.4% 50.0% reference   
   (+) 2) 43.7% 46.0% 1.40 0.82 – 2.38 0.214
   Missing data 6.9% 4.0% 0.56 0.11 – 2.90 0.486
Achilles tendon reflex      
   Normal 65.5% 30.0% reference   
   Abnormal 3) 27.6% 66.0% 5.10 2.41 – 10.79 < 0.001
   Missing data 6.9% 4.0% 0.56 0.11 – 2.90 0.486
Patellar tendon reflex      
   Normal 63.2% 62.0% reference   
   Abnormal 3) 29.9% 34.0% 1.21 0.57 – 2.54 0.617
   Missing data 6.9% 4.0% 0.56 0.11 – 2.90 0.486
  1. 1) MMT < = 3, Strength was graded from 0 (no movement) to 5 (normal) at the knee extensors, ankle dorsiflexors, and plantar flexors, and extensor hallucis longus.
  2. 2) Hypoesthesia, analgesia, or hyperalgesia at the medial knee, dorsal foot, plantar foot, and perineal lesion
  3. 3) Absence or low response of deep reflexes