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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of a working population with shoulder disorders (n = 350), and univariable associations with sick leave (yes/no) during 6 months following first consultation in general practice

From: A prediction rule for shoulder pain related sick leave: a prospective cohort study

Variable n (%)@ OR 95% CI pa
Demographic     
Age (years); mean (SD) 45 (11) 1.0 1.0, 1.0 0.26
Gender: male 193 (55) 0.9 0.5, 1.4 0.56
Education     0.02
   Low* 98 (28) -   
   Middle 148 (43) 0.5 0.3, 0.9  
   High 99 (29) 0.4 0.2, 0.9  
Disease characteristics     
Duration of complaints     0.77
   0–6 weeks* 139 (40) -   
   7–12 weeks 77 (22) 1.1 0.6, 2.1  
   >3 months 134 (38) 0.9 0.5, 1.5  
Sick leave at baseline in preceding 2 months     <0.001
   0 weeks* 254 (74) -   
   ≤1 weeks 44 (13) 1.8 0.9, 3.9  
   >1 weeks 46 (13) 3.3 1.6, 6.9  
Gradual onset (vs. acute) 212 (61) 1.0 0.6, 1.6 0.89
Opinion regarding cause     
   Unexpected movement 16 (5) 1.7 0.5, 5.6 0.36
   Strain/overuse: unusual activities 56 (16) 0.5 0.2, 1.1 0.08
   Strain/overuse: regular activities 99 (28) 2.4 1.4, 4.1 <0.001
   Injury 15 (4) 4..4 1.4, 15.3 0.01
   Sport injury 22 (6) 0.5 0.1, 1.7 0.26
   Unknown 133 (38) 1.4 0.9, 2.4 0.17
Shoulder complaints in the past 199 (57) 1.4 0.8, 2.3 0.19
Neck complaints in the past 165 (48) 1.5 0.9, 2.4 0.11
Dominant side involved 210 (60) 1.5 0.9, 2.4 0.15
Co-existing psychological complaints 27 (8) 5.4 2.0, 13.9 <0.001
Additional musculoskeletal complaints     
   Neck/high back 119 (34) 1.6 1.0, 2.7 0.07
   Low back pain 61 (17) 1.3 0.6, 2.4 0.50
   Upper extremity 96 (27) 1.4 0.8, 2.5 0.21
   Lower extremity 77 (22) 0.7 0.4, 1.3 0.30
Shoulder pain (0–10); mean (SD) 4.5 (2.3)    0.01
   0–3 points*   -   
   4–6 points   2.4 1.3, 4.5  
   7–10 points   2.3 1.2, 4.5  
Shoulder disability (SDQ) (0–100); mean (SD) 58.4 (24.0) 1.9 0.8, 4.8 0.24
Physical examination     
ROM shoulder (0–18) (median, IQR) 3 (2–5) 0.7# 0.3, 1.6 0.74
Pain shoulder with movement (<12, ≥ 12 points) 6.3 (4.0) 2.9# 1.3, 6.7 0.03
ROM neck (0–4) (median, IQR) 0 (0–1.5) 1.2# 0.7, 2.2 0.41
Pain neck with movement (0–18) (median, IQR) 0 (0–3) 1.1 1.0, 1.3 0.01
Physical factors     
Physical work load (0–5) (median, IQR) 1.6 (1.6) 1.3 1.1, 1.5 0.01
Repetitive movements (yes/no) 279 (80) 1.0 0.6, 1.9 0.97
Sitting in static position for long duration (yes/no) 138 (40) 1.2 0.7, 1.9 0.54
Physical activity in comparison to others     0.09
   more active* 130 (37) -   
   equally active 158 (45) 1.5 0.9, 2.7  
   less active 60 (17) 2.2 1.1, 4.5  
Psychological factors     
Coping; mean (SD)     
   Catastrophizing (1–6) 2.2 (0.8) 1.6 1.1, 2.2 0.01
   Coping with pain (1–6) 2.9 (1.0) 2.6# 0.4, 17.9 0.44
   Internal locus of control (1–6) 3.4 (0.9) 1.5# 0.4, 5.5 0.76
   External locus of control (1–6) 3.1 (0.9) 1.9# 0.3, 14.2 0.76
4DSQ (median, IQR)     
   Distress (0–32) 0 (0–2) 4.4$ 1.3, 15.5 0.01
   Depression (0–12)b 0 (0-0) -   
   Anxiety (0–24)b 0 (0-0) -   
   Somatization (0–32) 2 (0–4) 3.0$ 1.0, 9.1 0.05
Fear-avoidance (0–24); mean (SD) 14.4 (5.0) 1.1 1.0, 1.1 0.04
Kinesiophobia (0–12); mean (SD) 3.3 (3.4) 1.7# 0.5, 5.3 0.07
Psychosocial work environment     
Quantitative job demands (5–20); mean (SD) 12.8 (2.7) 1.4# 0.6, 3.0 0.68
Skill discretion (5–20); mean (SD) 15.3 (2.8) 1.8& 0.6, 5.3 0.57
Decision authority (3–12); mean (SD) 9.4 (1.8) 0.8 0.7, 0.9 <0.001
Co-worker support (4–16); mean (SD) 12.3 (2.0) 10.1& 1.1, 92.4 0.07
Supervisor support (4–16); mean (SD) 11.2 (2.5) 2.0& 0.9, 4.2 0.20
  1. SD = standard deviation; IQR = Inter quartile range; ROM = Range of Motion; 4DSQ = Four-dimensional symptom questionnaire. aVariables with a univariable p-value ≤ 0.20 were selected for the multivariable analysis. bORs haven't been computed due to empty cells in the cross-tables. @or otherwise stated *Reference category. #In case of non-linear associations continuous variables were divided into categories. The table presents the Odds Ratio (OR) for the highest versus lowest category. &ORs were computed for lowest versus highest categories. $Variable was dichotomised. (lowest versus middle and high category).