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Table 3 Determinants for the occurrence of low back pain, sick leave and health care use in the past 12 months among shipyard employees

From: Musculoskeletal disorders in shipyard industry: prevalence, health care use, and absenteeism

Self reported risk factors Low back pain (n = 853) Health care use (n = 314) Sick leave (n = 314)
  OR§ 95% CI OR§ 95% CI OR§ 95% CI
Age       
   ≤ 30 1.00   1.00   1.00  
   31–44 1.53* 1.04 2.25 0.85 0.46 1.58 0.89 0.46 1.71
   45 ≥ 1.48 0.97 2.26 1.06 0.54 2.08 0.50 0.24 1.03
Females 1.19 0.62 2.28 0.64 0.24 1.71 0.34 0.11 1.02
Body mass index >30 kg/m2 0.81 0.55 1.20 1.06 0.59 1.91 1.32 0.71 2.45
Living alone 1.04 0.68 1.59 0.87 0.46 1.67 1.47 0.75 2.87
Kids 1.12 0.80 1.57 0.93 0.56 1.54 0.70 0.41 1.19
Blue collars 0.84 057 1.23 1.31 0.74 2.32 1.28 0.72 2.27
Low level of education 1.09 0.70 1.68 0.97 0.49 1.91 1.34 0.64 2.81
Supervising 1.00 0.73 1.39 1.09 0.68 1.75 0.56* 0.32 0.99
Manual material handling 1.55* 1.02 2.36 1.13 0.63 2.02 1.20 0.65 2.20
Strenuous shoulder movements 1.21 0.87 1.67 1.23 0.76 2.00 1.25 0.74 2.09
Strenuous awkward postures 1.35 0.96 1.88 1.41 0.85 2.32 1.42 0.84 2.40
High perceived exertion 1.34 0.98 1.84 1.45 0.90 2.32 1.57 0.96 2.58
Low job control 1.07 0.79 1.46 1.18 0.74 1.88 1.37 0.84 2.24
High job demands 1.00 0.72 1.38 0.89 0.55 1.44 1.11 0.66 1.87
High need for recovery 2.11* 1.49 2.98 1.25 0.76 2.08 0.95 0.56 1.62
Bad/moderate perceived general health 1.76* 1.25 2.48 1.03 0.64 1.66 0.92 0.55 1.55
MSD comorbidity   -     
   LBP    1.00   1.00  
   LBP and HWP    1.29 0.61 2.75 1.53 0.66 3.59
   LBP and SNP    1.33 0.73 2.41 1.74 0.89 3.39
   ALL    1.10 0.53 2.29 2.78* 1.17 6.60
Chronic complaint   - 2.44* 1.23 4.83 2.36* 1.19 4.70
  1. §Significant factors constituting the multivariate model are indicated by '*' (i.e., P < 0.05). For other factors, the OR (prevalence ratio) is presented when including this factor in the multivariate model.
  2. CI = confidence interval.