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Table 3 Associations among pain threshold, psychological variables, and lumbar innervated hypoalgesic responses for subjects receiving spinal manipulation.

From: Immediate effects of spinal manipulation on thermal pain sensitivity: an experimental study

  Temporal Summation First Pain @ 47°C First Pain @ 49°C
Fear of Pain (FPQ) -0.20 (p = 0.401) 0.01 (p = 0.972) -0.08 (p = 0.732)
Pain catastrophizing (CSQ-R) -0.08 (p = 0.750) 0.18 (p = 0.442) 0.10 (p = 0.686)
Anxiety (STAI) -0.16 (p = 0.499) -0.19 (p = 0.422) -0.31 (p = 0.178)
Anxiety sensitivity (ASI) 0.21 (p = 0.370) 0.25 (p = 0.292) -0.10 (p = 0.674)
Pain threshold (degrees Celsius) -0.26 (p = 0.273) 0.11 (p = 0.656) 0.14 (p = 0.545)
Pain threshold rating (NRS) 0.05 (p = 0.843) -0.19 (p = 0.436) -0.14 (p = 0.549)
  1. Key
  2. NRS = Numerical rating scale
  3. FPQ = Fear of Pain Questionnaire
  4. CSQ-R = Coping Strategies Questionnaire-Revised
  5. STAI = State Trait Anxiety Inventory
  6. ASI = Anxiety Sensitivity Index