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Table 2 First pain hypoalgesia for stationary bicycle, lumbar extension, and spinal manipulation.

From: Immediate effects of spinal manipulation on thermal pain sensitivity: an experimental study

Variable Stationary Bicycle (n = 20) Lumbar Extension (n = 20) Spinal Manipulation (n = 20) Partial Eta-square# p-value#
Lumbar Innervated*      
NRS Change @ 47°C 13.2 (17.2)$ 12.9 (17.9)$ 23.5 (17.3)$ 0.08 0.101
NRS Change @ 49°C 1.2 (20.2) 6.3 (22.4) 12.1 (19.7)$ 0.05 0.268
Cervical Innervated^      
NRS Change @ 47°C -3.0 (13.7) 0.3 (11.6) 0.3 (10.2) 0.02 0.645
NRS Change @ 49°C 1.9 (9.0) -0.4 (10.1) 1.7 (10.8) 0.01 0.720
  1. Key
  2. NRS = Numerical rating scale
  3. All data are reported as mean (standard deviation) ratings.
  4. Negative numbers indicate increased pain following treatment.
  5. # – Significance and partial eta-square estimate are for the interaction between type of treatment and first pain hypoalgesia
  6. * – Significant overall main effect for lower extremity hypoalgesia at 47°C (F1,57 = 53.8, p < 0.001) and at 49°C (F1,57 = 5.9, p = 0.018)
  7. $ – Significant within group effect for hypoalgesia (p < 0.05)
  8. ^ – No significant main effect for upper extremity hypoalgesia at 47°C (F1,57 = 0.4, p = 0.525) and at 49°C (F1,57 = 0.6, p = 0.424)