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Table 1 Descriptive statistics for sample

From: Immediate effects of spinal manipulation on thermal pain sensitivity: an experimental study

Variable Stationary Bicycle (n = 20) Lumbar Extension (n = 20) Spinal Manipulation (n = 20) p-value
Age (years) 23.9 (3.4) 24.1 (2.6) 24.1 (3.6) 0.975
Sex (# female, %) 12 (60%) 14 (70%) 14 (70%) 0.741
Worst pain experienced (NRS) 68.9 (18.5) 64.0 (21.8) 59.7 (25.9) 0.436
Fear of pain (FPQ) 82.6 (16.7) 75.1 (13.3) 77.5 (22.6) 0.406
Pain catastrophizing (CSQ-R) 7.6 (3.1) 7.2 (3.7) 7.5 (3.8) 0.955
Anxiety (STAI) 45.3 (10.4) 45.5 (11.6) 45.2 (10.7) 0.996
Anxiety sensitivity (ASI) 19.8 (7.6) 16.0 (7.1) 16.0 (7.2) 0.230
Pain threshold (degrees Celsius) 44.7 (2.4) 45.4 (2.2) 44.8 (2.5) 0.589
Pain threshold rating (NRS) 25.0 (21.0) 28.8 (19.0) 21.3 (15.1) 0.443
  1. Key
  2. All data are reported as mean (standard deviation) ratings, unless otherwise indicated.
  3. NRS = Numerical rating scale
  4. FPQ = Fear of Pain Questionnaire
  5. CSQ-R = Coping Strategies Questionnaire-Revised
  6. STAI = State Trait Anxiety Inventory
  7. ASI = Anxiety Sensitivity Index