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Table 3 Within session, intra-observer standard error of measurement (SEM) and 95% confidence level (SEM × 2)

From: Reliability of two goniometric methods of measuring active inversion and eversion range of motion at the ankle

   Sitting Prone
Observer   Inversion Eversion Inversion Eversion
A SEM 2.1 2.1 1.4 1.0
  SEM × 2 4 4 3 2
B SEM 2.6 2.9 1.6 1.4
  SEM × 2 5 6 3 3
C SEM 1.9 2.2 1.2 1.1
  SEM × 2 4 4 2 2
  1. * SEM = sd√ (1-ICC[2,1]).
  2. ** SEM × 2 indicates the extent of measurement error associated with a single measurement i.e. the range within which the true score lies with a 95% confidence level.